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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K 
(Mark One)
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from     to     
Commission file number:  001-37352
Virtu Financial, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware32-0420206
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1633 Broadway10019
New York, New York
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
 (212) 418-0100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code) 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 per shareVIRTThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
  (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Class of Stock
Shares Outstanding as of February 13, 2024
Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 per share89,415,191
Class C common stock, par value $0.00001 per share8,607,998
Class D common stock, par value $0.00001 per share60,091,740
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023 was approximately $1,516.7 million, based on the closing price of $17.09 per share as reported by Nasdaq on such date.
 Portions of Part III of this Form 10-K are incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement (the “2024 Proxy Statement”) for its 2024 annual meeting of shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s fiscal year.
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VIRTU FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
      PAGE
NUMBER
    
  
 
 
 
 
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Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Virtu” and the “Company” refer to Virtu Financial, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries and the term “Virtu Financial” refers to Virtu Financial LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a consolidated subsidiary of ours.
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PART I

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they are subject to numerous uncertainties and factors relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategy. These forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “may,” “will,” “should,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project” or, in each case, their negative, or other variations or comparable terminology and expressions. These statements are based on assumptions that we have made in light of our experience in the industry as well as our perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate under the circumstances. As you read and consider this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should understand that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance or results and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate, may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Although we believe that the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on reasonable assumptions, you should be aware that many factors, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, could affect our actual financial results or results of operations and cash flows, and could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statements, including but not limited to:

volatility in levels of overall trading activity;
dependence upon trading counterparties, clients and clearing houses performing their obligations to us;
failures of our customized trading platform;
risks inherent to the electronic market making business and trading generally;
recent SEC rule proposals focused on equity markets may, if adopted, materially change U.S. equity market structure, including reducing overall trading volumes, reducing off-exchange trading and market making opportunities, requiring additional tools, platforms and services to register as an alternative trading system (“ATS”) or exchange, and generally increasing the implicit and explicit cost as well as the complexity of the U.S. equities eco-system for all participants, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business;
additionally, enhanced regulatory and media scrutiny, including attention to electronic trading, wholesale market making and off-exchange trading, payment for order flow, and other market structure topics and both the impact of additional potential changes in regulation or law as well as the potential impact upon public perception of us or of companies in our industry could also have an adverse effect on our business;
increased competition in market making activities and execution services;
dependence on continued access to sources of liquidity;
risks associated with self-clearing and other operational elements of our business, including but not limited to risks related to funding and liquidity;
obligations to comply with applicable regulatory capital requirements;
litigation or other legal and regulatory-based liabilities;
changes in laws, rules or regulations, including proposed legislation that would impose taxes on certain financial transactions in the European Union, the U.S. (and certain states therein) and other jurisdictions and other potential changes which could increase our corporate or other tax obligations in one or more jurisdictions;
obligations to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our operations in the U.S. and abroad;
need to maintain and continue developing proprietary technologies;
capacity constraints, system failures, and delays;
dependence on third-party infrastructure or systems;
use of open source software;
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failure to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights in our proprietary technology;
failure to protect confidential and proprietary information;
failure to protect our systems from internal or external cyber threats that could result in damage to our computer systems, business interruption, loss of data, monetary payment demands or other consequences;
risks associated with international operations and expansion, including failed acquisitions or dispositions;
the effects of and changes in economic conditions (such as volatility in the financial markets, increased inflation, monetary conditions and foreign currency and continued or exasperated exchange rate fluctuations, foreign currency controls and/or government mandated pricing controls, as well as in trade, monetary, fiscal and tax policies in international markets), political conditions (such as military actions and terrorist activities), and other global events such as fires, natural disasters, pandemics or extreme weather;
risks associated with potential growth and associated corporate actions;
inability to access, or delay in accessing the capital markets to sell shares or raise additional capital;
risks associated with new and emerging asset classes and eco-systems in which we may participate, including digital assets, including risks related to volatility in the underlying assets, regulatory uncertainty, evolving industry practices and standards around custody, clearing and settlement, and other risks inherent in a new and evolving asset class;
loss of key executives and failure to recruit and retain qualified personnel; and
risks associated with losing access to a significant exchange or other trading venue.

We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

We are a leading financial firm that leverages cutting edge technology to deliver liquidity to the global markets and innovative, transparent trading solutions to our clients. Leveraging our global market structure expertise and scaled, multi-asset infrastructure, we provide our clients a robust product suite including offerings in execution, liquidity sourcing, analytics and broker-neutral, multi-dealer platforms in workflow technology. Our product offerings allow our clients to trade on hundreds of venues across over 50 countries and in multiple asset classes, including global equities, Exchange Traded Funds (“ETFs”), options, foreign exchange, futures, fixed income, cryptocurrencies, and myriad other commodities. Our integrated, multi-asset analytics platform provides a range of pre- and post-trade services, data products and compliance tools that our clients rely upon to invest, trade and manage risk across global markets. We believe that our broad diversification, in combination with our proprietary technology platform and low-cost structure, gives us the scale necessary to grow our business around the globe as we service clients and facilitate risk transfer between global capital markets participants by providing liquidity, while at the same time earning attractive margins and returns.

Technology and operational efficiency are at the core of our business, and our focus on market making and order routing technology is a key element of our success. We have developed a proprietary, multi‑asset, multi-currency technology platform that is highly reliable, scalable and modular, and we integrate directly with exchanges, liquidity centers, and our clients. Our market data, order routing, transaction processing, risk management and market surveillance technology modules manage our market making and institutional agency activities in an efficient manner that enables us to scale our activities globally, across additional securities and other financial instruments and asset classes, without significant incremental costs or third-party licensing or processing fees.

We believe that technology-enabled market makers like Virtu serve an important role in maintaining and improving the overall health and efficiency of the global capital markets by providing market participants with an efficient means to transfer risk and analyze the quality of execution. We believe that market participants benefit from the increased liquidity, lower overall trading costs and execution transparency that Virtu provides.

Our execution services and client solutions products are designed to be transparent, because we believe transparency makes markets more efficient and helps investors make better, more informed decisions. We use the latest technology to create and deliver liquidity to global markets and innovative trading solutions and analytics tools to our clients. We interact directly
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with hundreds of retail brokers, Registered Investment Advisors, private client networks, sell-side brokers, and buy-side institutions.

We have two operating segments: Market Making and Execution Services, and one non-operating segment: Corporate. Our management allocates resources, assesses performance and manages our business according to these segments.

We primarily conduct our Americas equities business through our SEC registered broker‑dealer, Virtu Americas, LLC (“VAL”). We are registered with the Central Bank of Ireland (“CBI”) and the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”) in the UK for our European trading, the Canadian Investment Regulatory Organization (“CIRO”) and the Ontario Securities Commission for our Canadian trading, and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (“MAS”), Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong (“SFC”), and Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”) for our Asia-Pacific (“APAC”) trading. We are registered as a market maker or liquidity provider and/or enter into direct obligations to provide liquidity on nearly every exchange or venue that offers such programs. We engage regularly with regulators around the world on issues affecting electronic trading and other matters that may affect our business and the operation of the financial markets and advocate for increased transparency. In the U.S., we conduct our business from our headquarters in New York City and our offices in Boston, Austin, Texas, Chicago, Short Hills, New Jersey, and Palm Beach Gardens, Florida. Abroad, we conduct our business through trading centers located in London, Dublin, Paris, Singapore, Hong Kong, Toronto, and Sydney.

Market Making

Our Market Making segment principally consists of market making in the cash, futures, and options markets across global equities, fixed income, currencies, cryptocurrencies, and commodities. As a leading, low‑cost market maker dedicated to improving efficiency and providing liquidity across multiple asset classes and geographies, we aim to provide critical market functionality and robust price competition in the securities and other financial instruments in which we provide liquidity. The scale and diversity of our market making activities provide added liquidity and transparency to the financial markets, which we believe are necessary and valuable components to the efficient functioning of markets and benefit all market participants. We support transparent and efficient, technologically advanced marketplaces, and advocate for legislation and regulation that promotes fair and transparent access to the financial markets.

As a market maker, we commit capital on a principal basis by offering to buy securities from, or sell securities to, broker dealers, banks and institutions. We engage in principal trading in the Market Making segment direct to clients as well as in a supplemental capacity on exchanges, ATSs and other market centers. As a complement to electronic market making, our cash trading business handles specialized orders and transacts on the OTC Link ATS operated by OTC Markets Group Inc.

We make markets in a number of different asset classes, which are discussed in more detail below. We register as market makers and liquidity providers where available and support affirmative market making obligations.

We provide competitive and deep liquidity that helps to create more efficient markets around the world. We stand ready, at any time, to buy or sell a broad range of securities and other financial instruments, and we generate revenue by buying and selling large volumes of securities and other financial instruments while earning small bid/ask spreads.

We believe the overall level of volumes and realized volatility as well as the attractiveness of the order flow we interact with and the level of retail participation in the various markets we serve have the greatest impact on our businesses. Increases in market volatility can cause bid/ask spreads to temporarily widen as market participants are more willing to transact immediately and as a result market makers’ capture rate per notional amount transacted increases.

Technology is at the core of our business. Our team of in-house software engineers develops our software and applications, and we utilize optimized infrastructure to integrate directly with the exchanges and other trading venues on which we provide liquidity. Our focus on technology and our ability to leverage our technology enables us to be one of the lowest cost providers of liquidity to the global electronic trading marketplace.

Leveraging the scalability and low costs of our platform, we are able to test and rapidly deploy new liquidity provisioning strategies, expand to new securities, asset classes and geographies and increase transaction volumes at little incremental cost. These efficiencies are central to our ability to deliver consistently positive Adjusted Net Trading Income (as defined below) as our profitability per trade and per instrument is not significant, particularly in U.S. equities.

Our transaction processing is automated over the full life cycle of a trade. Our market making platform generates and disseminates continuous bid and offer quotes. At the moment when a trade is executed, our systems capture and deliver this information back to the source, in most cases within a fraction of a second, and the trade record is written into our clearing
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system, where it flows through a chain of control accounts that allow us to automatically and efficiently reconcile trades, positions and payments until the final settlement occurs.

We have built and continuously refine our automated and integrated, real time systems for global trading, risk management, clearing and cash management, among other purposes. We have also assembled a proprietary connectivity network between us and exchanges around the world. Efficiency and speed in performing prescribed functions are always crucial requirements for our systems, and generally we focus on opportunities in markets that are sufficiently advanced to allow the seamless deployment of our automated strategies, risk management system and core technology.

Our core operations team across our offices in North America, APAC and Europe monitors our systems 24 hours a day, five days a week. This function provides coverage for our full technology platform, including our market data, order routing, transaction processing, and risk management technology modules.

Clients and Products

We offer direct-to-client market making services across multiple asset classes primarily to sell-side clients including global, national and regional broker dealers and banks as well as buy-side clients comprising, among others, mutual funds, pension plans, plan sponsors, hedge funds, trusts and endowments in North America, Europe and Asia.

We generally compete based on execution quality, market coverage, and client service. In direct-to-client electronic market making in U.S. equities, execution quality is generally measured based on factors that include speed of execution, fulfillment rates, opportunity and amounts of price improvement, using metrics defined in SEC Rule 605. In other asset classes, metrics for execution quality are not prescribed by applicable regulation, and in many cases, are client defined.

We continually work to provide clients with high quality, low-cost trade executions that enable them to satisfy their fiduciary obligation to seek the best execution on behalf of their customer. We continually refine our automated order routing models so that we may remain competitive.

Global Equities

We trade over 25,000 listed and over-the-counter (“OTC”) securities including, among others, equity related futures and exchange traded products (“ETPs”), on sixteen U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) registered exchanges and other market centers around the world, including the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), the Nasdaq, NYSE Arca, Cboe BATS, Chicago Stock Exchange, the Member's Exchange (“MEMX”), the TSX in Canada, Bovespa in Brazil and BMV in Mexico, as well as other ATSs and more than 20 private liquidity pools.

    Our strategy globally is to utilize high speed, efficient connections to all of the registered exchanges and market centers, including the London Stock Exchange, Cboe Europe Equities, Euronext, Six Swiss Exchange, Australian Securities Exchange, Tokyo Stock Exchange and Singapore Exchange, as well as other trading venues and additional pools of liquidity to which we can gain access either directly or through a broker.

As ETPs and other similar products, including Exchange Traded Funds (“ETFs”), have proliferated both domestically and internationally, demand has increased for trading the underlying assets or hedging such products. Our technology has enabled us to expand into providing liquidity to this growing area by making markets across these assets in a variety of trading venues globally. We are authorized participants, and can create and/or redeem ETPs.

Global Fixed Income, Currencies and Commodities (FICC), Options, and Other

Our Fixed Income market making includes our activity in U.S. Treasury securities and other sovereign debt, corporate bonds, and other debt instruments. We trade these products on a variety of specialized exchanges, direct to counterparties, and other trading venues, including BrokerTec, eSpeed, DealerWeb, Bloomberg, Tradeweb, MarketAxess, and BGC’s Fenics UTS.

Our Currencies market making, including spot, futures and forwards, comprises our activity in over 80 currencies, including deliverable, non-deliverable, fiat, and digital currencies, across dozens of venues and direct to counterparties. We are a leading participant in the major foreign exchange venues, including LSEG, Currenex, Cboe FX and CME.

Our Commodities market making takes place on the CME, ICE, and Nasdaq Futures in crude oil, natural gas, heating oil, and gasoline futures. We trade approximately 100 energy products and futures on the ICE, CME, and TOCOM. We also
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actively trade precious metals, including gold, silver, platinum and palladium, as well as base metals such as aluminum and copper.

Our Options and Other market making includes our activity on all of the U.S. options exchanges of which we are a member (i.e., Cboe, ISE and NYSE Arca) and on the U.S. futures exchanges, as well as our activity in cryptocurrencies. Our cryptocurrency market making includes spot, perpetuals, futures, and ETFs and takes place across 55 venues and exchanges.

Execution Services

We offer agency execution services and trading venues that provide transparent trading in global equities, ETFs, fixed income, currencies, and commodities to institutions, banks and broker dealers. We generally earn commissions when transacting as an agent for our clients. Within the Execution Services segment, we offer the following categories of products and services:

Agency-based, execution-only trading, done through a variety of access points including:
algorithmic trading and order routing;
institutional sales traders who offer portfolio trading and single stock sales trading providing execution expertise for program, block and riskless principal trades in global equities and ETFs; and
matching of client conditional orders via POSIT Alert and in our ATSs, including Virtu MatchIt and POSIT. 

Workflow Technology, and our integrated, broker-neutral trading tools delivered across the globe including order and execution management systems and order management software applications and network connectivity; and

Trading Analytics, including
tools enabling portfolio managers and traders to improve pre-trade and real-time execution performance and post-trade analysis;
portfolio construction and optimization decisions; and
securities valuation.

Clients and Products 

We offer agency execution services across multiple asset classes to buy-side clients including mutual funds, pension plans, plan sponsors, hedge funds, trusts and endowments and sell-side clients including global, national and regional broker dealers and banks in North America, Europe and Asia. In 2023, our Execution Services segment did not have any client that accounted for more than 10% of our total commissions earned.

Clients may access a broad range of products and services that includes electronic execution services in global equities via algorithmic trading, order routing and an execution management system (“EMS”) as well as internal crossing through our registered ATSs. Our ATSs provide clients with important sources of non-displayed liquidity. We also offer clients voice access to global markets including sales and trading for equities, ETFs and options. Certain broker-dealer affiliates also engage in foreign exchange trading to facilitate equity trades by clients in different currencies as well as other client foreign exchange trades unrelated to equity trades. We handle large complex trades, accessing liquidity from our order flow and other sources. We provide soft dollar and commission recapture programs.

In this segment, we generally compete on trading technology, execution performance, costs, client service, market coverage, liquidity, platform capabilities and anonymity. We draw on in-house developed trading technologies to meet client criteria for execution quality and for managing trading costs. As a result, we are able to attract a diverse array of clients in terms of strategy, size and style. We also provide algorithmic trading and order routing that combine technology, access to our differentiated liquidity and support from experienced professionals to help clients execute trades. The segment also includes the results of our capital markets business, in which we act as an agent for issuers in connection with at-the-market offerings and buyback programs.

Agency-based, Execution-only Trading
    
Our clients may access a broad range of products and services that includes electronic execution services in global equities via algorithmic trading, order routing and an EMS as well as internal crossing through our registered ATSs. Our algorithms and order routers help portfolio managers and traders to trade orders quickly, comprehensively and cost‑efficiently from our EMS or our Order Management System (“OMS”) and most third‑party trading platforms. Our institutional sales
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traders offer portfolio trading and single stock sales trading which provides execution expertise for program, block and riskless principal trades in global equities and ETFs.

We provide matching of client orders in our ATSs, including Virtu MatchIt, POSIT ATS, and POSIT MTF. MatchIt provides two crossing sessions, a Main Session and a Conditional Session. The Main Session provides continuous crossing with price/time priority and is available to our subsidiaries and external subscribers. The Conditional Session accepts conditional orders with price/size priority, and is only available to our subsidiaries. POSIT provides continuous crossing of non‑displayed (or dark) equity orders and price improvement opportunities within the published best bid and offer price. POSIT Alert is a block crossing mechanism within POSIT. POSIT Alert unites liquidity sourced directly from trader OMSs with conditional orders from electronic participants for matching using a conditional order process. In addition, POSIT MTF Auction provides frequent batch auctions which display indicative size/price prior to trade execution.

Workflow Technology

Our workflow technology tools are designed to meet the needs of a broad range of trading styles. As an example, Triton Valor, the most recent release of our multi‑asset and broker‑neutral Triton EMS, helps to bring integrated execution and analytical tools to the user’s desktop, including the Algo Wheel, an algorithmic way for a portfolio manager to intelligently allocate volume between different providers. Triton supports global list‑based and single‑stock trading, as well as futures and options capabilities and includes ITG Net, a fully integrated and supported financial services communications network. Triton also provides traders with access to scalable, low‑latency, multi‑asset trading opportunities. Our OMS combines portfolio management, compliance functionality, and a fully integrated and supported financial services communications network (ITG Net) with a consolidated, outsourced service for global trade matching and settlement that provides connectivity to the industry’s post‑trade utilities, as well as support for multiple, flexible settlement communication methods and a real‑time process monitor.

ITG Net is our global financial communications network that provides reliable and fully-supported connectivity between buy‑side and sell‑side firms for multi‑asset order routing and indication‑of‑interest messages with Virtu and third‑party trading platforms. ITG Net supports approximately 9,000 global billable connections to more than 600 unique execution destinations worldwide. ITG Net also integrates the trading products of third‑party brokers and ATSs into our OMS and EMS platforms.

RFQ‑hub, a multi‑asset platform for global listed and over‑the‑counter (“OTC”) financial instruments, connects buy‑side trading desks and portfolio managers with a large network of sell‑side market makers in Europe, North America and the APAC region, allowing these trading desks to place requests‑for‑quotes (“RFQ”) in negotiated equities, futures, options, swaps, convertible bonds, structured products and commodities. RFQ‑hub is available as a stand‑alone platform and is also integrated with Triton. In May 2022, we formed a consortium of strategic partners and investors to own and support the growth of the RFQ-hub business. Through a series of related transactions, we sold a substantial minority interest in the business to multiple strategic partners and have maintained a majority ownership interest.

We offer administration and consolidation of client commission arrangements across a wide range of our clients’ preferred brokerage and research providers through Commission Manager, a robust, multi‑asset, web‑based commission management portal, and Budget Tracker, which enables asset managers to set research allocations and create and track budgets for their end clients. We also offer a comprehensive research payment account solution, enabling clients to unbundle research and execution payments to comply with the European Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (“MiFID”) II regulations.

Analytics
    
Our trading analytics suite helps enable portfolio managers and traders to analyze execution performance before the trade happens (pre‑trade) and during trading (real‑time) by providing trading analytics and risk models that help them perform predictive analysis, manage risk, change strategy and reduce trading costs. Trading costs are affected by multiple factors, such as execution strategies, time horizon, volatility, spread, volume and order size. Our trading analytics suite is designed to gauge the effects of these factors and aid in the understanding of the trade‑off between market impact and opportunity cost. For example, our transaction cost analysis (“TCA”) offers measurement and reporting capabilities to analyze costs and performance across the trading continuum. TCA assesses trading performance and implicit costs under various market conditions so users can adjust strategies and potentially reduce costs and boost investment performance. TCA is also available for foreign exchange transactions (FX TCA) and for corporate and sovereign bond trading (FI TCA).

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Corporate

Our Corporate segment contains investments principally in strategic financial services-oriented opportunities and maintains corporate overhead expenses and all other income and expenses that are not attributable to our operating segments.

Risk Management

We are acutely focused on risk management. Our market making activities involve taking on risk positions and our execution services business involves providing trading, clearing and related services on behalf of customers and clients. These activities expose us to market, counterparty, operational, and regulatory risk. We aim to mitigate these risks through prudent risk management practices.

We have senior risk personnel who report independently into the Board Risk Committee. We also have a Risk Advisory Committee, which includes key personnel from each of our regions globally and is comprised of our senior risk personnel, members of our senior management team, senior technologists and traders, and certain other senior officers. Our Risk Advisory Committee provides advice to our senior management team in connection with our key risk management policies, procedures and risk limits. Our Board of Directors, through the Board Risk Committee, is periodically apprised of risk events, risk profiles, trends and the activities of our Risk Advisory Committee, including our risk management policies, procedures and controls.

Our approach to managing risk includes the following practices:

Pre-Trade Risk Controls. Messages that leave our trading environment must first pass through a series of preset risk controls, which are intended to minimize the likelihood of unintended activities by our algorithms. Certain risk controls, when triggered, result in a strategy lockdown, which requires a manual reset in order to restart the strategy.

Model Restrictions. Trading models have limits in place which restrict individual position sizes, sector exposures and imbalanced portfolios with significant directional risks. Trading strategies are designed to automatically reduce exposures when limits are reached. The models are monitored continuously by the trading team and the risk managers.

Aggregate Exposure Monitoring. Pursuant to our risk management policies, our automated management information systems monitor in real‑time and generate reports on daily and periodic bases. Exposures monitored include:

Risk Profiles
Statistical Risk Measures including Value at Risk (“VaR”), and Equity Betas
Stress and Scenario analysis
Concentration measures
Profit and Loss analysis
Trading performance reports

Our trading assets and liabilities are marked‑to‑market daily for financial reporting purposes by reference to official exchange prices, and they are re‑valued continuously throughout the trading day for risk management and asset/liability management purposes.

Operational Controls. We have a series of automated controls over our business. Key automated controls include:

Our technical operations system continuously monitors our network and the proper functioning of each of our trading centers around the world;
Our market making system continuously evaluates the listed securities and other financial products in which we provide bid and offer quotes and changes its bids and offers to reflect changes in market conditions. The latency of communicating with exchanges and market centers is reduced through continuous software and network engineering innovation, allowing us to achieve real‑time controls over market exposure. We connect
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to exchanges and other electronic venues through a network of co‑location facilities around the world that are monitored 24 hours a day, five days a week, by our staff of experienced network professionals;
Our clearing system captures trades in real-time and performs automated reconciliations of trades and positions, corporate action processing, options exercises, securities lending and inventory management, allowing us to effectively manage operational risk; and
Software developed to support our market making systems performs daily profit and loss and position reconciliations.

Additionally, we conduct after event reviews where operational issues are evaluated and risk mitigations are identified and subsequently implemented.

Credit Controls. Trading notional limits are applied to customers and counterparts. These are monitored throughout the day by trading support and risk professionals.

Liquidity Controls. We seek to minimize liquidity risk by focusing in highly active and liquid instruments. Less liquid instruments are identified and restrictions are in place as to the size of positions we hold in such instruments.

Our approach to risk mitigation can in some cases limit our overall opportunities, including by adding a degree of latency to our trading infrastructure which can, for example, prevent us from earning outsized returns in times of extreme market volatility. We believe that these trade-offs are necessary to properly limit risk.

We leverage technology and automation to perform many functions within Virtu. Cyber threats are a risk that we are exposed to as a result of our heavy utilization of technology. These threats could include the introduction of malicious code or unauthorized access, and could result in data loss or destruction, business interruption, financial loss, and the unavailability of service and other risks. We have taken steps to mitigate the various cyber threats, and we devote resources to maintain and regularly upgrade our systems and networks and review the ever-changing threat landscape. Cybersecurity risk is managed as part of our overall information technology risk framework under the direction of our Chief Information Security Officer. We periodically review policies and procedures to seek to ensure they are effective in mitigating current cyber and other information security threats. In addition to the policy reviews, we continue to look to implement solutions that enhance preventive and detection capabilities. We also maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber risks. However, such insurance may be insufficient to cover all losses or may not provide any coverage.

Competition

The financial services industry generally, and the institutional securities brokerage business in which we operate, are extremely competitive, and we expect them to remain so for the foreseeable future. Our full suite of products does not directly compete with any particular firm; however, individual products compete with various firms and consortia.

Within the market making segment, our competition has been registered market making firms ranging from sole proprietors with very limited resources to large, integrated broker‑dealers. Today, a range of market participants may compete with us for revenues generated by market making activities across one or more asset classes and geographies, including market participants, such as Citadel Securities, Susquehanna International Group LLP, Two Sigma, Jane Street, DRW Holdings, IMC, and Optiver.

In the execution services segment, our low-touch agency algorithmic execution and smart order routing products, as well as our high‑touch agency execution and portfolio trading services, compete with agency‑only and other sell‑side firms. Our trading and portfolio analytics compete with offerings from several sell‑side‑affiliated and independent companies. Our POSIT and MatchIt ATSs compete with various national and regional securities exchanges, ATSs, Electronic Communication Networks, MTFs and systematic internalizers for trade execution services. Our EMS, OMS, connectivity and RFQ services compete with offerings from independent vendors, agency‑only firms and other sell‑side firms.

Some of our competitors in market making and execution services are larger than we are and have more captive order flow in certain assets. Technology and software innovation is a primary focus for us, rather than relying solely on the speed of our network. We believe that our scalable technology allows us to access new markets and increase volumes with limited incremental costs.

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Intellectual Property and Other Proprietary Rights

We rely on federal, state and international laws that govern trade secrets, trademarks, domain names, patents, copyright and contract law to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology. We enter into confidentiality, intellectual property invention assignment and/or non‑competition and non‑solicitation agreements or restrictions with our employees, independent contractors and business partners, and we control access to, and distribution of, our intellectual property.

Human Capital Resources

As of February 2, 2024, we had approximately 975 employees, located in nine countries around the world, all of whom were employed on a full‑time basis and in good standing. The approximate regional representation of our workforce is as follows: 71% Americas, 19% EMEA and 10% APAC. None of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements. We believe that our employee relations are good.

In shaping our culture, we aim to combine a high standard of excellence, technological innovation and agility and operational and financial discipline. We believe that our flat and transparent structure and our collaborative and collegial approach enable our employees to grow, develop and maximize their impact on our organization. To attract and retain top talent in our highly competitive industry, we have designed our compensation and benefits programs to promote the retention and growth of our employees along with their health, well-being and financial security. Our short- and long-term incentive programs are aligned with key business objectives and are intended to motivate strong performance. Our employees are eligible for medical, dental and vision insurance, a savings/retirement plan, life and disability insurance, and various wellness programs and we review the competitiveness of our compensation and benefits periodically. As an equal opportunity employer, all qualified applicants receive consideration without regard to race, national origin, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, protected veteran status, disability, age or any other legally protected status.

We seek to create an inclusive, equitable, culturally competent, and supportive environment where our management and employees model behavior that enriches our workplace. In 2020, we formed a Diversity and Inclusion Committee (now known as the Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Committee, the “DE&I Committee”) to help further these goals and objectives. The DE&I Committee has focused on broadening recruitment efforts, increasing awareness of diversity and inclusiveness related issues through internal trainings and communications, and internal and external mentorship, including mentorships with New York City high school students. Additionally, we have hosted an annual Women's Winternship program since 2019, which provides a week-long internship program aimed at introducing sophomore-level female college students to a career path in financial services and features instructors across the Company from various business lines and disciplines.

Regulation

We conduct our U.S. equities and options market making and provide execution services through VAL, our SEC‑registered broker‑dealer. VAL is regulated by the SEC and its designated examining authority is the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”). VAL is also registered as a floor trader firm with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”).

We are a full clearing member of the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”) and the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”). Our activities in U.S. equities are both self‑cleared and rely on fully-disclosed clearing arrangements with third-party clearing firms. We use the services of prime brokers, primarily in other asset classes, who provide us direct market access to markets and often cross‑margining and margin financing in return for execution and clearing fees. We continually monitor the credit quality of our prime brokers and rely on large multinational banks for most of our execution and clearing needs globally.

Our energy, commodities and currency market making and trading activities are primarily conducted through Virtu Financial Global Markets LLC.

We conduct our European, Middle Eastern and African (“EMEA”) market making activities from Dublin and through our subsidiary Virtu Financial Ireland Limited (“VFIL”), which is authorized as an “Investment Firm” with the CBI. We conduct our EMEA execution services trading activity from Dublin, London, and Paris through our subsidiary Virtu Europe Trading Limited (“VETL”) (f/k/a Virtu ITG Europe Limited). VETL is authorized and regulated by the CBI as an “Investment Firm” and maintains branch offices in London and Paris. The London branch office of VETL is authorized and regulated by the FCA. VETL's Paris branch is registered with the Banque de France. VETL also operates a multi-lateral trading facility (“MTF”)
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in Ireland and Virtu ITG UK Limited (“VIUK”), a U.K. investment firm, operates a MTF in the U.K. VIUK is an investment firm which is authorized and regulated by the FCA.

We conduct our APAC market making activities, including much of our market making in cryptocurrency products from Singapore and through our Singapore subsidiary, Virtu Financial Singapore Pte. Ltd. Virtu Financial Singapore Pte. Ltd. is registered with the MAS for an investment incentive arrangement. We conduct our APAC execution services trading activities from Singapore, Hong Kong, and Australia through our subsidiaries Virtu ITG Singapore Pte. Limited, Virtu ITG Hong Kong Limited, and Virtu ITG Australia Limited. Virtu ITG Singapore Pte. Limited is a holder of a Capital Markets Services License from the MAS, which is its principal regulator. Virtu ITG Hong Kong Limited is a participating organization of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and a holder of a securities dealer’s license issued by the SFC, which is its principal regulator. Virtu ITG Australia Limited is a market participant of the Australian Securities Exchange (“ASX”) and Chi-X Australia Limited, and is also a holder of an Australian Financial Services License issued by the ASIC. Virtu ITG Australia Limited’s principal regulators are the ASX and ASIC.

Our Canadian market making activities and our Canadian execution services trading activities are conducted through our subsidiary Virtu Canada Corp (f/k/a Virtu ITG Canada Corp.). Virtu Canada Corp. is a Canadian broker‑dealer registered as an investment dealer with CIRO, Ontario Securities Commission (“OSC”), the Autorité Des Marchés Financiers in Quebec, Alberta Securities Commission (“ASC”), British Columbia Securities Commission, Manitoba Securities Commission, New Brunswick Securities Commission, Nova Scotia Securities Commission and Saskatchewan Financial Services Commission. Virtu Canada Corp. is also registered as a Futures Commission Merchant in Ontario and Manitoba and Derivatives Dealer in Quebec.

Most aspects of our business are subject to regulation under federal, state and foreign laws and regulations, as well as the rules of the various self-regulatory organization (“SROs”) of which our broker-dealer subsidiaries are members. The SEC, FINRA, CFTC, NFA, U.S. state securities regulators, the European Securities and Markets Authority (“ESMA”) in the European Union, the CBI in Ireland, FCA in the U.K., Banque de France in France, MAS in Singapore, SFC in Hong Kong, ASX and ASIC in Australia, CIRO and OSC in Canada, other SROs and other U.S. and foreign governmental regulatory bodies promulgate numerous rules and regulations that may impact our business. As a matter of public policy, regulatory bodies are charged with safeguarding the integrity of the securities and other financial markets and with protecting the interests of investors in those markets, including, but not limited to, trading practices, order handling, best execution practices, anti‑money laundering and financial crimes, handling of material non‑public information, safeguarding data, compliance with exchange and clearinghouse rules, capital adequacy, customer protection, reporting, record retention, market access and the conduct of officers, employees and other associated persons.

Rulemaking by these and other regulators (foreign and domestic), including resulting market structure changes, has had an impact on our regulated subsidiaries by directly affecting our method of operation and, at times, our profitability. Legislation can impose, and has imposed, significant obligations on broker‑dealers, including our regulated subsidiaries. These increased obligations require the implementation and maintenance of internal practices, procedures and controls, and the need for additional employee resources, and have increased our costs, and may subject us to government and regulatory inquiries, claims or penalties. Changes in market structure can also necessitate restructuring our operations for compliance in certain jurisdictions which has cost implications.

Failure to comply with any laws, rules or regulations could result in administrative or court proceedings, censures, fines, penalties, judgments, disgorgement, restitution and censures, suspension or expulsion from a certain jurisdiction, SRO or market, the revocation or limitation of licenses and/or business activities, the issuance of cease‑and‑desist orders or injunctions or the suspension or disqualification of the entity and/or its officers, employees or other associated persons. From time to time, we are the subject of requests for information and documents from the SEC, FINRA and other regulators which could lead to administrative or court proceedings. It is our practice to cooperate and comply with the requests for information and documents. Regulatory inquiries can require substantial expenditures of time and money and can have an adverse impact on our reputation, customer relationship and profitability.

The regulatory environment in which we operate is subject to constant change. Our business, financial condition and operating results may also be adversely affected as a result of new or revised legislation or regulations imposed by the U.S. Congress, foreign legislative bodies, state securities regulators, U.S. and foreign governmental regulatory bodies and SROs. Additional regulations, changes in existing laws and rules, or changes in interpretations or enforcement of existing laws and rules often directly affect the method of operation and profitability of regulated broker‑dealers. We cannot predict what effect, if any, future legislative or regulatory changes might have. However, there have been in the past, and could be in the future, significant technological, operational and compliance costs associated with the obligations which derive from compliance with such regulations. Regulators may propose market structure changes particularly considering the continued regulatory,
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congressional and media scrutiny of U.S. equities market structure, the retail trading environment in the U.S., wholesale market making and the relationships between retail broker-dealers and market making firms, including but not limited to payment for order flow arrangements, other remuneration arrangements such as profit-sharing relationships and exchange fee and rebate structures, ATSs and off-exchange trading more generally, high frequency trading, short selling, market fragmentation, colocation, and access to market data feeds.

The SEC and other SROs have enacted and are actively considering rules that may affect our operations and profitability. Specifically, the SEC has proposed several rule changes focused on equity market structure reform. These proposals include, but are not limited to, (i) Proposed Rule 615 of Regulation NMS, which proposes to dramatically change the U.S. equities market structure, the routing, handling and potentially the amount, character, and cost of retail order flow, (ii) Regulation Best Execution, which would impose best execution requirements on broker-dealers which would be distinct from, but overlapping with, FINRA’s existing best execution rule (Rule 5310), (iii) proposed rule amendments to minimum pricing increments under Rule 612 or Regulation NMS, access fee caps under Rule 610 of Regulation NMS, acceleration of implementation of certain Market Data Infrastructure Rules, and amendment to the odd-lot information definition adopted under the MDI rules (collectively referred to as the “tick size, access fees and infostructure rule proposals”), (iv) proposed amendments to Rule 605 of Regulation NMS, along with a series of amendments to the definition of Exchange and Alternative Trading Systems (ATS), which would expand the scope of exchange and ATS registration and compliance requirements. If adopted, these or other potential rule changes may alter the market structure for NMS securities in ways that would disfavor the current competing market center model and lessen the amount of volume executed off-exchange in favor of a central limit order book model or other centralized model for order interaction. Proposed revisions to SEC Rule 3b-16, Regulation ATS, and Regulation SCI would increase the number of technology platforms that meet the definition of an exchange and would then be required to register as an exchange or alternatively operate as an ATS, and/or operate under the more complex and costly Regulation SCI regime. Proposed changes to Regulation ATS would revise the format of Form ATS required to be filed and would impose additional disclosures and costs to rewrite and refile those forms. Recently adopted amendments to the definitions of “dealer” and “government securities dealer” under the Exchange Act are expected to increase the scope and breadth of these registrant categories. These changes and others may impose additional technological, operational and compliance costs on us and creates uncertainty with regard to their effects.

On July 21, 2010, the Dodd‑Frank Act was enacted in the U.S. Implementation of the Dodd‑Frank Act has been accomplished through extensive rulemaking by the SEC, the CFTC and other governmental agencies. The Dodd‑Frank Act includes the “Volcker Rule,” which significantly limits the ability of banks and their affiliates to engage in proprietary trading, and Title VII, which provides a framework for the regulation of the swap markets. One of our subsidiaries is registered with the CFTC as a floor trader, and is exempt from registration as a swap dealer based on its current activity. Registration as a swap dealer would subject our subsidiary to various requirements, including those related to capital, conduct, and reporting.

We have foreign subsidiaries and plan to continue to expand our international presence. The market making and execution services industry in many foreign countries is heavily regulated, much like in the U.S. The varying compliance requirements of these different regulatory jurisdictions and other factors may limit our ability to conduct business or expand internationally. MiFID II represented significant change in the operation of European capital markets and became effective on January 3, 2018. MiFID II introduced requirements for increased pre- and post-trade transparency, technological and organizational requirements for firms deploying algorithmic trading techniques, restrictions on dark trading, and the roll out of a new bi-lateral OTC equity trading regime called the Systematic Internaliser regime. MiFID II contains detailed rules as to the types of platform upon which European equities trading can be conducted, including Regulated Markets, MTFs, Organized Trading Facilities, Systematic Internalisers or equivalent third-country venues. MiFID II also requires market makers, such as VFIL, to post firm quotes at competitive prices and contains supplemental requirements with regards to investment firms’ pre-trade risk controls relating to the safe operation of electronic systems. MiFID II also imposed additional requirements on trading platforms, such as additional technological requirements, clock synchronization, microsecond processing granularity, pre-trade risk controls, transaction reporting requirements and limits on the ratio of unexecuted orders to trades. The MiFID II regime is currently under review, with European Union authorities proposing to make further changes to the regime. In its communication on “The European economic and financial system: fostering openness, strength and resilience” of January 19, 2021, the European Commission confirmed its intention to propose to make changes with a view to improving simplifying and further harmonizing capital markets’ transparency as part of the review of the MiFID II and MiFIR framework. On December 21, 2022, the Council of the European Union published the texts of its general approach on the proposed regulation to amend MiFIR “as regards enhancing market data transparency, removing obstacles to the emergence of a consolidated tape, optimizing the trading obligations and amending Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012” and on the proposed directive “amending Directive 2014/65/EU on markets in financial instruments and amending Directive 2013/36/EU on access of the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms, amending Directive 2002/87/EC and repealing Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC”, each dated December 16, 2022; as well as publishing an “I” item note, also dated December 16, 2022, inviting the Council’s Permanent Representatives Committee to agree the text of the mandate for negotiations with European Parliament on the basis of the published general approaches, with a view to reaching agreement at first reading. The Council of the European Union further published an Information Note with respect to the “Proposal for a Regulation (EU) of the European
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Parliament and of the Council of amending Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as regards enhancing data transparency, removing obstacles to the emergence of consolidated tapes, optimizing the trading obligations and prohibiting receiving payments for forwarding client orders” and the “Proposal for the Directive (EU) 2023/ of the European Parliament and of the Council of amending Directive 2014/65/EU on markets in financial instruments”, dated October 18, 2023, which includes the final compromise texts for each proposed regulation. The Information Note details the draft overall compromise package as agreed by the Permanent Representatives’ Committee, with the Council of the European Union inviting the European Parliament to adopt its position at first reading in accordance with the compromise package, with a view to reaching an agreement and adopting the act at first reading. Further, in light of the U.K.’s withdrawal of its membership from the E.U., which is commonly referred to as “Brexit,” the passporting regime under MiFID II, which enables firms to provide services to countries across the E.U., no longer encompasses the U.K. VFIL and VETL continue to access U.K. markets, however, these entities do so not on the basis of MiFID passporting rights, but as third-country entities pursuant to U.K. law. Following Brexit, VETL had continued initially to service its U.K. client-base by means of the U.K. FCA’s Temporary Permissions Regime, pursuant to which its former MiFID branch was deemed to be authorized and regulated by the FCA under U.K. law. As of December 8, 2023, VETL’s application for its London branch to be authorized as a third-country branch was approved by the FCA, facilitating the long-term operational footprint of VETL’s branch in the U.K.

Each of these legislative and regulatory requirements imposes additional technological, operational and compliance costs on us. New laws, rules or regulations as well as any regulatory or legal actions or proceedings, changes in legislation or regulation and changes in market customs and practices could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to regulatory capital rules of the SEC, FINRA, other SROs and foreign regulators. These rules, which specify minimum capital requirements for our regulated subsidiaries, are designed to measure the general financial integrity and liquidity of a broker‑dealer and require that at least a minimum part of its assets be kept in relatively liquid form. Failure to maintain required minimum capital may subject a regulated subsidiary to a fine, requirement to cease conducting business, suspension, revocation of registration or expulsion by applicable regulatory authorities, and ultimately could require the relevant entity’s liquidation. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - Non-compliance with applicable laws or regulatory requirements could subject us to sanctions and could negatively impact our reputation, prospects, revenues and earnings.”

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Corporate History

We and our predecessors have been in the electronic trading and market making business for more than 20 years. We conduct our business through Virtu Financial LLC (“Virtu Financial”) and its subsidiaries. We completed our initial public offering (“IPO”) in April 2015, after which shares of our Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Class A Common Stock”) began trading on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol “VIRT.”

Prior to our IPO, we completed a series of reorganization transactions (the “Reorganization Transactions”) pursuant to which, among other things, we acquired equity interests in Virtu Financial as a result of certain mergers involving wholly owned subsidiaries of ours, an affiliate of Silver Lake Partners and Temasek Holdings (Private) Limited (“Temasek”), and an affiliate of Temasek (the “Temasek Pre-IPO Member”) (the “Mergers”), and in exchange we issued to an affiliate of Silver Lake Partners (such affiliate, the “Silver Lake Post-IPO Stockholder”) and an affiliate of Temasek (such affiliate, the “Temasek Post-IPO Stockholder”, and together with the Silver Lake Post-IPO Stockholder, the “Investor Post-IPO Stockholders”), shares of our Class A Common Stock and rights to receive payments under a tax receivable agreement described below, we became the sole managing member of Virtu Financial, all of the existing equity interests in Virtu Financial were reclassified into non-voting common interest units (“Virtu Financial Units”), our certificate of incorporation was amended and restated to authorize the issuance of four classes of common stock: Class A Common Stock, Class B Common Stock (as defined below), Class C Common Stock (as defined below) and Class D Common Stock (as defined below), and the holders of Virtu Financial Units other than us subscribed for shares of Class C common stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Class C Common Stock”) or Class D common stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Class D Common Stock”) (in the case of the Founder Post-IPO Member, as defined below) in an amount equal to the number of Virtu Financial Units held by such member.

The Class A Common Stock and Class C Common Stock each provide holders with one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, and the Class B Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Class B Common Stock”) and Class D Common Stock each provide holders with 10 votes on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. The holders of Class C Common Stock and Class D Common Stock do not have any of the economic rights (including rights to dividends and distributions upon liquidation) provided to holders of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock. Shares of our common stock generally vote together as a single class on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders.
        
As a result of the completion of the IPO, the Reorganization Transactions, the July 2017 Private Placement (as defined below), and certain other secondary offerings and permitted exchanges by current and former employees of Virtu Financial Units for shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock, the Company holds an approximately 57.8% interest in Virtu Financial at December 31, 2023. The remaining issued and outstanding Virtu Financial Units are held by an affiliate of Mr. Vincent Viola (the “Founder Post-IPO Member”), two entities whose equity holders include certain current and former members of the management of Virtu Financial, and certain other current and former members of management of Virtu Financial (collectively, the “Virtu Post-IPO Members”). The Founder Post-IPO Member controls approximately 86.5% of the combined voting power of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2023. As a result, the Founder Post-IPO Member controls any actions requiring the general approval of our stockholders, including the election of our Board of Directors, the adoption of amendments to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the approval of any merger or sale of substantially all of our assets. The Founder Post-IPO Member is controlled by family members of Mr. Viola, our Founder and Chairman Emeritus.

We have completed two significant acquisitions that have expanded and complemented Virtu Financial's original electronic trading and market making business. On July 20, 2017 (the “KCG Closing Date”), the Company completed the all-cash acquisition (the “Acquisition of KCG”) of KCG Holdings, Inc. (“KCG”) and on March 1, 2019 (the “ITG Closing Date”), we completed our acquisition of Investment Technology Group, Inc. (“ITG”) in an all-cash transaction (the “ITG Acquisition”).

Available Information

Our website address is www.virtu.com. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated into any other filings we make with the SEC. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) are available free of charge on our website as soon as possible after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC.

Our Investor Relations Department can be contacted at Virtu Financial, Inc., 1633 Broadway, New York, NY, 10019, Attn: Investor Relations, e-mail: investor_relations@virtu.com.

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From time to time, we use our website, public conference calls, and social media channels, including our Twitter account (twitter.com/virtufinancial), our LinkedIn account (linkedin.com/company/virtu-financial), and our Instagram account (instagram.com/virtu.financial), as additional means of disclosing public information to investors, the media and others interested in us. It is possible that certain information we post on our website and on social media could be deemed to be material information, and we encourage investors, the media and others interested in us to review the business and financial information we post on our website and on the social media channels identified above. The information on our website and our social media channels is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Risk Factors Summary

The summary of risks below provides an overview of the principal risks we are exposed to in the normal course of our business activities. This summary does not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read the more detailed discussion of risks that follows this summary.

Business and Operations

Our revenues and profitability depend on trading volume, volatility, retail participation and other characteristics in the markets in which we operate and the order flow with which we interact and therefore are subject to factors beyond our control, are prone to significant fluctuations and are difficult to predict.
We are dependent upon our trading counterparties, clients and clearing houses to perform their obligations to us.
We may incur losses in our market making activities and our execution services businesses due to failures of our customized trading platform, due to market risk or from a lack of perfect information.
The valuation of the securities we hold at any particular time may result in large and occasionally anomalous swings in the value of our positions and in our earnings in any period.
We face substantial competition and other competitive dynamics which could harm our financial performance.
Our market making business is concentrated in U.S. equities; accordingly, our operating results may be negatively impacted by changes that affect the U.S. equity markets.
We could lose significant sources of revenues if we lose any of our larger clients or sources of order flow or lose access to an important exchange or other trading venue or if we fail to adapt to proposed new regulations, should they become final rules.
We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations.
Self‑clearing and other elements of our trade processing expose us to operational, financial and liquidity risks.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which could negatively impact our business and financial condition, and may limit our flexibility in operating our business.
We depend on our technology and our results may be negatively impacted if we cannot remain competitive.
Our reliance on our computer systems and software could expose us to material financial and reputational harm if any of our computer systems or software were subject to any material disruption or corruption.
We could be the target of a significant cyber-attack, threat or incident that impairs internal systems, results in adverse consequences to information our system process, store or transmit or causes reputation or monetary damages as a consequence.
Our business may be harmed by computer and communication systems malfunctions, human error, failures and delays.
Failure or poor performance of third‑party software, infrastructure or systems could adversely affect our business.
The use of open source software may expose us to additional risks.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights or may be prevented from using intellectual property necessary for our business.
Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could negatively impact our earnings.
We may incur material losses on foreign exchange transactions entered into on behalf of clients and be exposed to material liquidity risk due to counterparty defaults or errors.
We may experience risks associated with future growth or expansion of our operations or acquisitions, strategic investments or dispositions of businesses, and we may never realize the anticipated benefits of such activities.
Our future efforts to sell shares of our common stock or raise additional capital may be inhibited by regulations.
We are dependent on the continued service of certain key executives, the loss or diminished performance of whom could have a material adverse effect on our business and our success depends, in part, on our ability to identify, recruit and retain skilled management and technical personnel.
We may be subject to increased risks or business disruption, incur losses or suffer reputational harm in relation to or as a result of climate change.
Cryptocurrency is an emerging asset class that carries unique risk, including the risk of financial loss.
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Legal and Regulatory

Regulatory and legal uncertainties could harm our business.
Pending, proposed and other potential changes in laws and rules may adversely impact our business.
Non‑compliance with applicable laws or regulatory requirements could subject us to sanctions and could negatively impact our reputation, prospects, revenues and earnings.
We are subject to risks relating to litigation and potential securities law liability.
Proposed legislation in the European Union, the U.S. and other jurisdictions that would impose taxes on certain financial transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.
We are exposed to risks associated with our international operations and expansion and failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to such operations may increase costs, reduce profits, limit growth or subject us to liability.
Brexit continues to pose a risk of negatively impacting the global economy, financial markets and our business.
In connection with our historical acquisitions, the Company is subject to potential liabilities that could materially and adversely affect our business.

Organization and Structure

We are a holding company and our principal asset is our 57.8% of equity interest in Virtu Financial, and we are accordingly dependent upon distributions from Virtu Financial to pay dividends, if any, taxes and other expenses.
We are controlled by the Founder Post‑IPO Member, whose interests in our business may be different than yours, and certain statutory provisions afforded to stockholders are not applicable to us.
We may be unable to remain in compliance with the covenants contained in our Credit Agreement and our obligation to comply with these covenants may adversely affect our ability to operate our business.
We are exempt from certain corporate governance requirements since we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq rules, and as a result our stockholders do not have the protections afforded by these corporate governance requirements.
We are required to pay the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders for certain tax benefits we may claim, and the amounts we may pay could be significant.

Class A Common Stock

Substantial future sales of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.
Failure to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and stock price.
We intend to pay regular dividends to our stockholders, but our ability to do so may be limited by our holding company structure, contractual restrictions and regulatory requirements.
Provisions in our charter documents and certain rules imposed by regulatory authorities may delay or prevent our acquisition by a third party.

General

Our stock price may be volatile.
We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.
Our stock price and trading volume could decline as a result of inaccurate or unfavorable research, or the cessation of research coverage, about us or our business published by securities or industry analysts.
We may incur losses as a result of unforeseen or catastrophic events, including the emergence of another pandemic, social unrest, terrorist attacks, extreme weather events or other natural disasters.
Our reported financial results depend on management’s selection of accounting methods and certain assumptions and estimates.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

Our revenues and profitability depend on trading volume, volatility, retail participation and other characteristics of the markets in which we operate and the order flow with which we interact, and therefore are subject to factors beyond our control, are prone to significant fluctuations and are difficult to predict.

Our revenues and profitability depend in part on the level of trading activity of securities, derivatives and other financial products on exchanges and in other trading venues in the U.S. and abroad, which are directly affected by factors
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beyond our control, including economic and political conditions, regulatory changes, emergencies and pandemics, broad trends in business and finance and changes in the markets in which such transactions occur. Weaknesses in the markets in which we operate, including economic slowdowns in recent years, have historically resulted in reduced trading volumes for us. Declines in trading volumes generally result in lower revenues from market making and transaction execution activities. Lower levels of volatility generally have the same directional impact. Declines in market values of securities or other financial instruments can also result in illiquid markets, which can also result in lower revenues and profitability from market making and transaction execution activities. Lower price levels of securities and other financial instruments, as well as compressed bid/ask spreads, which often follow lower pricing, decreases in retail participation levels and other changes in market and/or order flow characteristics can further diminish the opportunities across markets we serve and order flow with which we interact, resulting in reduced revenues and profitability. These factors can also increase the potential for losses on securities or other financial instruments held in inventory and failures of buyers and sellers to fulfill their obligations and settle their trades, as well as claims and litigation. Declines in the trading activity of institutional or “buy-side” market participants may result in lower revenue and/or diminished opportunities for us to earn commissions from execution activities. Any of the foregoing factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In the past, our revenues and operating results have varied significantly from period to period due primarily to movements and trends in the underlying markets and to fluctuations in trading volumes and volatility levels. As a result, period to period comparisons of our revenues and operating results may not be meaningful, and future revenues and profitability may be subject to significant fluctuations or declines.

We are dependent upon our trading counterparties, clients and clearing houses to perform their obligations to us.

Our business consists of providing consistent two‑sided liquidity to market participants across numerous geographies and asset classes as well as providing trade execution and related services to clients. In the event of a systemic market event, resulting from large price movements or otherwise, certain market participants may not be able to meet their obligations to their trading counterparties, who, in turn, may not be able to meet their obligations to their other trading counterparties, which could lead to major defaults by one or more market participants. Further, one or more counterparties or clients may suffer liquidity or solvency challenges as a result of internal or other idiosyncratic events, and this may prevent these counterparties or clients, and potentially their counterparties or clients, from meeting their obligations to us. Following the implementation of certain mandates under the Dodd‑Frank Act in the U.S. and similar legislation worldwide, many trades in the securities and futures markets, though not all, and an increasing number of trades in the over‑the‑counter derivatives markets, are cleared through central counterparties. These central counterparties assume, and specialize in managing, counterparty performance risk relating to such trades. However, even when trades are cleared in this manner, there can be no assurance that a clearing house’s risk management methodology will be adequate to manage one or more defaults. Given the concentration of counterparty performance risk that is concentrated in central clearing parties, any failure by a clearing house to properly manage a default could lead to a systemic market failure. If our trading counterparties do not meet their obligations to us, or if any central clearing parties fail to properly manage defaults by market participants, we could suffer a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We may incur losses in our market making activities and our execution services businesses due to failures of our customized trading platform, due to market risk or from a lack of perfect information.

The success of our business is substantially dependent on the accuracy and performance of our customized trading platform, which evaluates and monitors the risks inherent in our market making strategies and execution services business, assimilates market data and reevaluates our outstanding quotes and positions continuously throughout the trading day. Our strategies are designed to automatically rebalance our positions throughout the trading day to manage risk exposures on our positions. Flaws in our strategies, order management system, risk management processes, latencies or inaccuracies in the market data that we use to generate our quotes, or human error in managing risk parameters or other strategy inputs, may lead to unexpected and unprofitable trades, which may result in material trading losses and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

A significant portion of our revenues are derived from our trading as principal in our role as a formal or registered market maker and liquidity provider on various exchanges and markets, as well as direct to customer market making. We may incur trading losses relating to these activities since each primarily involves the purchase, sale or short sale of securities, futures and other financial instruments for our own account. In any period, we may incur significant trading losses for a variety of reasons, including price changes, performance, size and volatility of portfolios we may hold in connection with our customer market making activities, lack of liquidity in instruments in which we have positions and the required performance of our market making obligations. Furthermore, we may from time to time develop large position concentrations in securities or other financial instruments of a single issuer or issuers engaged in a specific industry, or alternatively a single future or other financial instrument, which would result in the risk of higher trading losses than if our concentration were lower.

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These risks may limit or restrict, for example, our ability to either resell securities we have purchased or to repurchase securities we have sold. In addition, we may experience difficulty borrowing securities to make delivery to purchasers to whom we have sold securities short or lenders from whom we have borrowed securities.

In our role as a market maker, we attempt to derive a profit from bid/ask spreads. However, competitive forces often require us to match or improve upon the quotes that other market makers display, thereby narrowing bid/ask spreads, and to hold long or short positions in securities, futures or other financial instruments. We may at times trade with others who have information that may be more accurate or complete than the information we have, and as a result we may accumulate unfavorable positions preceding large price movements in a given instrument. We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage these risks successfully or that we will not experience significant losses from such activities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our risk management activities related to our on exchange market making strategies utilize a four‑pronged approach, consisting of strategy lockdowns, centralized strategy monitoring, aggregate exposure monitoring and operational controls. In particular, messages that leave our trading environment first must pass through a series of preset risk controls or “lockdowns” that are intended to minimize the likelihood of unintended activities. In certain cases, this layer of risk management, which adds a layer of latency to our process, may limit our ability to profit from acute volatility in the markets. This would be the case, for example, where a particular strategy being utilized by one of our traders is temporarily locked down for generating revenue in excess of the preset risk limit. Even if we are able to quickly and correctly identify the reasons for a lockdown and quickly resume the trading strategy, we may limit our potential upside as a result of our risk management policies.

The valuation of the securities we hold at any particular time may result in large and occasionally anomalous swings in the value of our positions and in our earnings in any period.

The market prices of our long and short positions are reflected on our books at closing prices, which are typically the last trade prices before the official close of the primary exchange on which each such security trades. Given that we manage a globally integrated portfolio, we may have large and substantially offsetting positions in securities that trade on different exchanges that close at different times of the trading day and may be denominated in different currencies. Further, there may be large and occasionally anomalous swings in the value of our positions on any particular day and in our earnings in any period. Such swings may be especially pronounced on the last business day of each calendar quarter, as the discrepancy in official closing prices resulting from the asynchronous closing times may cause us to recognize a gain or loss in one quarter which would be substantially offset by a corresponding loss or gain in the following quarter.

We face substantial competition and other competitive dynamics which could harm our financial performance.

Revenues from our market making activities depend on our ability to offer to buy and sell financial instruments at prices that are attractive and represent the best bid and/or offer in a given instrument at a given time. To attract order flow, we compete with other firms not only on our ability to provide liquidity at competitive prices, but also on other factors such as order execution speed and technology. Similarly, revenues from our technology services and agency execution services depend on our ability to offer cutting edge technology and risk management solutions. Across our businesses, our relationships with clients, customers and other counterparties could be adversely impacted by competitive dynamics across the industry, including but not limited to consolidation in the retail brokerage industry or asset management industry.

Our competitors include other registered market makers, as well as unregulated or lesser‑regulated trading and technology firms that also compete to provide liquidity and execution services. Our competitors range from sole proprietors with very limited resources to highly sophisticated groups, hedge funds, well‑capitalized broker‑dealers and proprietary trading firms or other market makers that have substantially greater financial and other resources than we do. These larger and better capitalized competitors may be better able to respond to changes in the market making industry, to compete for skilled professionals, to finance acquisitions, to fund internal growth, to manage costs and expenses and to compete for market share generally. Trading firms that are not registered as broker‑dealers or broker‑dealers not registered as market makers may in some instances have certain advantages over more regulated firms, including our subsidiaries that may allow them to bypass regulatory restrictions and trade more cheaply than more regulated participants on some markets or exchanges. In addition, we may in the future face enhanced competition from new market participants that may also have substantially greater financial and other resources than we do, which may result in compressed bid/ask spreads in the marketplace that may negatively impact our financial performance. Moreover, current and potential competitors may establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties or may consolidate to enhance their services and products. The trend toward increased competition in our business is expected to continue, and it is possible that our competitors may acquire increased market share. Increased competition or consolidation in the marketplace could reduce the bid/ask spreads on which our business and profitability depend, and may also reduce commissions paid by institutional clients for execution services, negatively impacting
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our financial performance. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively with current or future competitors, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our market making business is concentrated in U.S. equities; accordingly, our operating results may be negatively impacted by changes that affect the U.S. equity markets.

The majority of our market making revenue for 2023 was derived from our market making in U.S. equities. The level of activity in the U.S. equity markets is directly affected by factors beyond our control, including U.S. economic and political conditions, broad trends in business and finance, legislative and regulatory changes and changes in volume and price levels of U.S. equity transactions. As a result, to the extent these or other factors reduce trading volume or volatility or result in a downturn in the U.S. equity markets, we may experience a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

We could lose significant sources of revenues if we lose any of our larger clients or sources of order flow or lose access to an important exchange or other trading venue or if we fail to adapt to proposed new regulations, should they become final rules.

During a given period, a limited number of clients may account for a significant portion of our order flow, revenues and profitability, and we expect a large portion of the future demand for, and profitability from, our trade execution services to remain concentrated within a limited number of clients. The loss of one or more larger clients could have an adverse effect on our revenues and profitability in the future. None of these clients is currently contractually obligated to utilize us for trade execution services and, accordingly, these clients may direct their trade execution activities to other execution providers or market centers at any time. Some of these clients have grown organically or acquired market makers and specialist firms to internalize order flow or have entered into strategic relationships with competitors. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain these significant clients or that such clients will maintain or increase their demand for our trade execution services. Further, the continued integration of legacy systems and the development of new systems could result in disruptions to our ongoing businesses and relationships or cause issues with standards, controls, procedures and policies that adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, or to solicit new customers. Further, changes in applicable laws, regulations or rules could adversely impact our relationship with any such client or opportunities to interact with order flows from such clients. The loss, or a significant reduction, of demand for our services from any of these clients could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Similarly, changes in applicable laws, regulations or rules promulgated by regulators or exchanges could conceivably prevent us from providing liquidity directly to clients or counterparties or other trading venue where we provide liquidity today. Following recent regulatory attention on U.S. equities market structure, including the practice of wholesale market making and other forms of off exchange trading, the SEC has proposed the adoption of new Rule 615, which would dramatically change U.S. equities market structure, the routing, handling and potentially the amount, character and cost of retail order flow, and therefore may substantially diminish the volume of our transactions with retail client orders. This and other potential legal and regulatory changes are discussed in further detail in “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Legal and Regulatory Risks.” Though our revenues are diversified across exchanges and other trading venues, asset classes and geographies, the loss of access to or reduction in opportunities to transact with one or more significant clients or counterparties, exchanges or other trading venues for any reason could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to liquidity risk in our operations.

We require liquidity to fund various ongoing obligations, including operating expenses, margin requirements, capital expenditures, debt service and dividend payments. Our main sources of liquidity are cash flow from the operations of our subsidiaries, our broker‑dealer revolving credit facilities (described under “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Long-Term Borrowings”), margin financing provided by our prime brokers and cash on hand. Our liquidity could be materially impaired by a number of factors, including increased funding requirements for margin or settlement with central clearinghouses, prime brokers or counterparties, reduced business activity due to a market downturn, adverse regulatory action or a downgrade of our credit rating. If our business activities decrease or we are unable to borrow additional funds in the future on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, we could suffer a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Self‑clearing and other elements of our trade processing operations expose us to significant operational, financial and liquidity risks.

We currently self‑clear a substantial portion of our domestic equity trades and may expand our self‑clearing operations internationally and across product offerings and asset classes in the future. Self‑clearing exposes our business to operational risks, including business disruption, operational inefficiencies, liquidity, financing risks, counterparty performance risk and potentially increased expenses and lost revenue opportunities. While our clearing platform, operational processes, risk methodologies, enhanced infrastructure and current and future financing arrangements have been carefully designed, we may nevertheless encounter difficulties that may lead to operating inefficiencies, including delays in implementation, disruption in the infrastructure that supports the business, inadequate liquidity and financial loss. Any such delay, disruption or failure could negatively impact our ability to effect transactions and manage our exposure to risk and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations cash flows.

In connection with our operation of our client execution services business, we are required to finance certain of our clients’ unsettled positions from time to time and we could be held responsible for the defaults of our clients. Default by our clients may also give rise to our incurring penalties imposed by execution venues, regulatory authorities and clearing and settlement organizations. Although we regularly review our credit exposure, default risk may arise from events or circumstances that may be difficult to detect or foresee. In addition, concerns about, or a default by, one institution could lead to significant liquidity problems, losses or defaults by other institutions that could in turn adversely affect us.

Additionally, elevated levels of volume and volatility, which have and may continue to result in material increases in our trading activities both in our market making segment and in our execution services segment, have previously and may in the future result in significantly increased margin requirements with the National Securities Clearing Corporation (“NSCC”), the Options Clearing Corporation (“OCC”), as well as certain prime brokers, clearing brokers, and other counterparties. In order to manage these increased daily funding obligations, we have taken and may continue to have to take measures to increase available short-term liquidity and to reduce our short-term funding requirements, which may require us to depend on additional sources of liquidity and upon the availability of third parties for services such as trade clearing, and have required and may continue to require us to limit certain of our activities in certain asset classes or products. If such sources of short-term liquidity or third-party services are not available, or if we encounter challenges obtaining such short-term liquidity or third-party services on terms favorable to us or at all, then our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted.

We have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which could negatively impact our business and financial condition, and may limit our flexibility in operating our business.

As of December 31, 2023, we had an aggregate of $1,751.8 million outstanding indebtedness under our long-term borrowings. In 2022, we incurred $1.8 billion of term loan under the Credit Agreement (as defined below) in connection with a refinancing transaction entered into on January 13, 2022 which is discussed in further detail in Note 8 “Borrowings” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If we cannot generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service our debt, we may need to refinance our debt, dispose of assets or issue equity to obtain necessary funds. We do not know whether we will be able to take any of such actions on a timely basis, on terms satisfactory to us or at all.

The Credit Agreement also provides for a revolving credit facility which allows us to borrow on a revolving basis, subject to maximum borrowing limit of $250.0 million, under which we had no borrowing outstanding as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, we are party to an uncommitted facility (the “Uncommitted Facility”), subject to a maximum borrowing limit of $400.0 million, under which we had no borrowings outstanding as of December 31, 2023. We are also a party to a $650.0 million broker-dealer revolving credit facility (the “Committed Facility”) under which we had no borrowings outstanding as of December 31, 2023. Also, certain of our non-guarantor subsidiaries are party to various short-term credit facilities with various prime brokers and other financial institutions in an aggregate amount of $599.2 million under which we had $175.3 million in borrowings outstanding at December 31, 2023.

    The credit agreement entered into on March 1, 2019 by and among Virtu Financial, VFH Parent LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a subsidiary of Virtu Financial (“VFH”), Impala Borrower LLC (the “Acquisition Borrower”), a subsidiary of the Company, the lenders party thereto and Jefferies Finance LLC, as administrative agent (as amended on October 9, 2019 and as further amended from time to time, the “Acquisition Credit Agreement”) contained, and the refinancing credit agreement entered into on January 13, 2022 by and among VFH, the lenders party thereto and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent (the “Credit Agreement”), and any other existing or future indebtedness of ours may contain, a number of covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our and our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:
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incur additional debt, guarantee indebtedness or issue certain preferred equity interests;
pay dividends on or make distributions in respect of, or repurchase or redeem, our equity interests or make other restricted payments;
prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;
make loans or certain investments;
sell certain assets;
create liens on our assets;
consolidate, merge or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates;
enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and
designate our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries.

As a result of these covenants, we are limited in the manner in which we conduct our business, and we may be unable to successfully execute our strategy, engage in favorable business activities or finance future operations or capital needs. In addition, the revolving credit facility under the Credit Agreement is subject to a springing financial covenant which, if in effect, may require us to take action to reduce our debt or to act in a manner contrary to our business objectives.

We may be unable to remain in compliance with covenants contained in the Credit Agreement, and our obligation to comply with these covenants may adversely affect our ability to operate our business. A failure to comply with the covenants under the Credit Agreement or any of our other future indebtedness could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. If any such event of default has occurred and is continuing, the lenders under our Credit Agreement, among other things:

will not be required to lend any additional amounts to us; or
could elect to declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable and terminate all commitments to extend further credit;

any of which could result in cross defaults under our other indebtedness. If we default on our indebtedness, our business, financial condition and results of operation could suffer a material adverse effect.

We pledge substantially all of our and our guarantor subsidiaries’ assets as collateral under the Credit Agreement. If we were unable to repay such indebtedness, the lenders under the Credit Agreement could proceed to exercise remedies against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. If any of our outstanding indebtedness under the Credit Agreement or our other indebtedness were to be accelerated, there can be no assurance that our assets would be sufficient to repay such indebtedness in full. We do not have sufficient working capital to satisfy our debt obligations in the event of an acceleration of all or a significant part of our outstanding indebtedness.

Despite our substantial indebtedness, we may still be able to incur significantly more debt, which could intensify the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.

Borrowings under the Credit Agreement, the Uncommitted Facility and the Committed Facility are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on certain of our variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease. We have entered into, and may enter into additional, interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk, may prove disadvantageous or may create additional risks. Rising interest rates could also limit our ability to refinance existing debt when it matures or cause us to pay higher interest rates upon refinancing.

We depend on our technology, and our future results may be negatively impacted if we cannot remain technologically competitive.

We believe that our success in the past has largely been attributable to our technology, which has taken many years to develop. If technology equivalent to ours becomes more widely available for any reason, our operating results may be negatively impacted. Additionally, adoption or development of similar or more advanced technologies by our competitors may require that we devote substantial resources to the development of more advanced technology to remain competitive. Regulators and exchanges may also introduce risk control and other technological requirements on our business that could result in
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increased costs of compliance and divert our technological resources away from their primary strategy development and maintenance duties. The markets in which we compete are characterized by rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards and changing trading systems, practices and techniques. The widespread adoption of new internet, networking or telecommunications technologies or other technological changes could require us to incur substantial expenditures to modify or adapt our services or infrastructure. We may not be able to anticipate or respond adequately or in a cost‑efficient and competitive manner to technological advancements (including advancements related to low‑latency technologies, execution and messaging speeds) or changing industry standards. If any of these risks materialize, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our reliance on our computer systems and software could expose us to material financial and reputational harm if any of our computer systems or software were subject to any material disruption or corruption.

We rely significantly on our computer systems and software to receive and properly process internal and external data and utilize such data to generate orders and other messages. A disruption or corruption of the proper functioning of our computer systems or software could cause us to make erroneous trades or result in other negative circumstances, which could result in material losses or reputational harm. We cannot guarantee that our efforts to maintain competitive computer systems and software will be successful. Our computer systems and software may fail or be subject to bugs or other errors, including human error, resulting in service interruptions or other unintended consequences. If any of these risks materialize, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We could be the target of a significant cyber-attack, threat or incident that impairs internal systems, results in adverse consequences to information our system process, store or transmit or causes reputation or monetary damages as a consequence.

Our business relies on technology and automation to perform significant functions within our firm. Because of our reliance on technology, we may be susceptible to various forms of cyber-attacks by third parties or insiders. Like other financial services firms, we and our third-party service providers have been the target of cyber-attacks. Though we take steps to mitigate the various cyber threats and devote significant resources to maintain and update our systems and networks, we may be unable to anticipate attacks or to implement adequate preventative measures. We are not aware of any material losses we have incurred relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches. Our cybersecurity measures may not detect or prevent all attempts to compromise our systems, including denial‑of‑service attacks, viruses, malicious software, ransomware, break‑ins, phishing attacks, social engineering, security breaches or other attacks and similar disruptions that may jeopardize the security of information stored in and transmitted by our systems or that we otherwise maintain or otherwise result in financial losses or damages to our firm. Furthermore, security measures employed by third-party service providers may ultimately prove to be ineffective at countering threats and therefore could result in adverse impacts to our business, operations, or confidential information, depending upon our relationship with and exposure to a given services provider and the nature of the services provided. Although we maintain insurance coverage that may, subject to policy terms and conditions, cover certain aspects of cyber risks, such insurance coverage may be insufficient to cover all losses or may not cover any losses. Breaches of our cybersecurity measures or those of our third-party service providers could result in any of the following: unauthorized access to our systems; unauthorized access to and misappropriation of information or data, including confidential or proprietary information about ourselves, third parties with whom we do business or our proprietary systems; viruses, worms, spyware, ransomware, or other malware being placed in our systems and intellectual property; deletion or modification of client information; or a denial‑of‑service or other interruptions to our business operations. Any actual or perceived breach of our cybersecurity could damage our reputation, expose us to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability, require us to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such breaches and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our business may be harmed by computer and communication systems malfunctions, human error, failures and delays.

Our business activities are heavily dependent on the integrity and performance of the computer and communications systems supporting them. Our systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from human error, software bugs and errors, electronic and physical security breaches, natural disasters, economic or political developments, pandemics, weather events, power loss, utility or internet outages, computer viruses, intentional acts of vandalism, terrorism, geopolitical and/or global conflict, war and other similar events. Extraordinary trading volumes or other events could cause our computer systems to operate in ways that we did not intend, at an unacceptably low speed or even fail. While we have invested significant amounts of capital to upgrade the capacity, reliability and scalability of our systems, there can be no assurance that our systems will always operate properly or be sufficient to handle such extraordinary trading volumes. Any disruption for any reason in the proper functioning or any corruption of our software or erroneous or corrupted data may cause us to make erroneous trades or suspend our services and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
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Although our systems and infrastructure are generally designed to accommodate additional growth without redesign or replacement, we may need to make significant investments in additional hardware and software to accommodate growth. Failure to make necessary expansions and upgrades to our systems and infrastructure could not only limit our growth and business prospects but could also cause substantial losses and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Since the timing and impact of disasters and disruptions are unpredictable, we may not be able to respond to actual events as they occur. Business disruptions can vary in their scope and significance and can affect one or more of our facilities. These disruptions may occur as a result of events that affect only our buildings or systems or those of such third parties, or as a result of events with a broader impact globally, regionally or in the cities where those buildings or systems are located, including, but not limited to, natural disasters, economic or political developments, pandemics, weather events, terrorism, geopolitical and/or global conflict, war and other similar events.

Further, the severity of the disruption can also vary from minimal to severe. Although we have employed efforts to develop, implement and maintain reasonable disaster recovery and business continuity plans, we cannot guarantee that our systems will fully recover after a significant business disruption in a timely fashion or at all. Our ability to conduct business may be adversely impacted by a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our businesses and the communities in which we are located. This may include a disruption involving electrical, satellite, undersea cable or other communications, internet, transportation or other services facilities used by us, our employees or third parties with which we conduct business. If we are prevented from using any of our current trading operations, or if our business continuity operations do not work effectively, we may not have complete business continuity, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Failure or poor performance of third‑party software, infrastructure or systems on which we rely could adversely affect our business.

We depend on third parties to provide and maintain certain infrastructure that is critical to our business. For example, we rely on third parties to provide software, data center services and dedicated fiber optic, microwave, wireline and wireless communication infrastructure. This infrastructure may malfunction or fail due to events outside of our control, which could disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Any failure to maintain and renew our relationships with these third parties on commercially favorable terms, or to enter into similar relationships in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We also rely on certain third‑party software, third‑party computer systems and third‑party service providers, including clearing systems, exchange systems, alternate trading systems, order routing systems, internet service providers, communications facilities and other facilities. Any interruption in these third‑party services or software, deterioration in their performance, or other improper operation could interfere with our trading activities, cause losses due to erroneous or delayed responses, or otherwise be disruptive to our business. If our arrangements with any third party are terminated, we may not be able to find an alternative source of software or systems support on a timely basis or on commercially reasonable terms. This could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The use of open source software may expose us to additional risks.

    We use software development tools covered by open source licenses and may incorporate such open source software into our proprietary software from time to time. “Open source software” refers to any code, shareware or other software that is made generally available to the public without requiring payment of fees or royalties and/or that may require disclosure or licensing of any software that incorporates such source code, shareware or other software. Given the nature of open source software, third parties might assert contractual or copyright and other intellectual property‑related claims against us based on our use of such tools and software programs or might seek to compel the disclosure of the source code of our software or other proprietary information. If any such claims materialize, we could be required to (i) seek licenses from third parties in order to continue to use such tools and software or to continue to operate certain elements of our technology, (ii) release certain proprietary software code comprising our modifications to such open source software, (iii) make our software available under the terms of an open source license, (iv) re‑engineer all, or a portion of, that software, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows or (v) be required to pay significant damages as a result of substantiated unauthorized use. While we monitor the use of all open source software in our solutions, processes and technology and try to ensure that no open source software is used (i) in such a way as to require us to disclose the source code to the related solution when we do not wish to do so nor (ii) in connection with critical or fundamental elements of
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our software or technology, such use may have inadvertently occurred in deploying our proprietary solutions. If a third‑party software provider has incorporated certain types of open source software into software we license from such third party for our products and solutions, we could, under certain circumstances, be required to disclose the source code to our solutions. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open software can lead to greater risks than use of third‑party commercial software because open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated and could potentially have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights or may be prevented from using intellectual property necessary for our business.

We rely on federal and state law, trade secrets, trademarks, domain names, copyrights and contract law to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology. It is possible that third parties may copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property or proprietary technology without authorization or otherwise infringe on our rights. For example, while we have a policy of entering into confidentiality, intellectual property invention assignment and/or non‑competition and non‑solicitation agreements or restrictions with our employees, independent contractors and business partners, such agreements may not provide adequate protection or may be breached, or our proprietary technology may otherwise become available to or be independently developed by our competitors. The promulgation of laws or rules which require the maintenance of source code or other intellectual property in a repository subject to certain requirements and/or which enhance or facilitate access to such source code by regulatory authorities could inhibit our ability to protect against unauthorized dissemination or use of our intellectual property. Third parties have alleged and may in the future allege that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property rights. Third parties may initiate litigation against us without warning, or may send us letters or other communications that make allegations without initiating litigation. We may elect not to respond to these letters or other communications if we believe they are without merit, or we may attempt to resolve these disputes out of court by negotiating a license, but in either case it is possible that such disputes will ultimately result in litigation. Any such claims could interfere with our ability to use technology or intellectual property that is material to the operation of our business. Such claims may be made by competitors seeking to obtain a competitive advantage or by other parties, such as entities that purchase intellectual property assets for the purpose of bringing infringement claims. We also periodically employ individuals who were previously employed by our competitors or potential competitors, and we may therefore be subject to claims that such employees have used or disclosed the alleged trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers.

At times we rely on litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets, determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Any such litigation, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs and the diversion of resources and the attention of management. If unsuccessful, such litigation could result in the loss of important intellectual property rights, require us to pay substantial damages, subject us to injunctions that prevent us from using certain intellectual property, require us to make admissions that affect our reputation in the marketplace and require us to enter into license agreements that may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Finally, even if we prevail in any litigation, the remedy may not be commercially meaningful or fully compensate us for the harm we suffer or the costs we incur. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Fluctuations in currency exchange rates could negatively impact our earnings.

A significant portion of our international business is conducted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, and therefore changes in foreign exchange rates relative to the U.S. dollar have in the past and can in the future affect the value of our non‑U.S. dollar net assets, revenues and expenses. Although we closely monitor potential exposures as a result of these fluctuations in currencies, and where cost‑justified we adopt strategies that are designed to reduce the impact of these fluctuations on our financial performance, including the financing of non‑U.S. dollar assets with borrowings in the same currency and the use of various hedging transactions related to net assets, revenues, expenses or cash flows, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in managing our foreign exchange risk. Our exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations will grow if the relative contribution of our operations outside the U.S. increases. Any material fluctuations in currencies could have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We may incur material losses on foreign exchange transactions entered into on behalf of clients and be exposed to material liquidity risk due to counterparty defaults or errors.

We enable clients to settle cross‑border equity transactions in their local currency through the use of foreign exchange contracts. These arrangements typically involve the delivery of securities or cash to a counterparty that is not processed through a central clearing facility in exchange for a simultaneous receipt of cash or securities. We may operate as either a principal or
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agent in these transactions. As a result, a default by one of our counterparties prior to the settlement of their obligation could materially impact our liquidity and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we are exposed to operational risk. Employee and technological errors in executing, recording or reporting foreign exchange transactions may result in material losses due to the large size of such transactions and the underlying market risk in correcting such errors.

We may experience risks associated with future growth or expansion of our operations or acquisitions, strategic investments or dispositions of businesses, and we may never realize the anticipated benefits of such activities.

As a part of our business strategy, we may make acquisitions or significant investments in and/or disposals of businesses. Any such future acquisitions, investments and/or dispositions would be accompanied by risks such as assessment of values for acquired businesses, intangible assets and technologies, difficulties in assimilating the operations and personnel of acquired companies or businesses, diversion of our management’s attention from ongoing business concerns, our potential inability to maximize our financial and strategic position through the successful incorporation or disposition of operations, maintenance of uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies and the impairment of existing relationships with employees, contractors, suppliers and customers as a result of the integration of new management personnel and cost‑saving initiatives. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to successfully integrate any company or business that we might acquire in the future, and our failure to do so could harm our current business.

In addition, we may not realize the anticipated benefits of any such transactions, and there may be other unanticipated or unidentified effects. While we would seek protection, for example, through warranties and indemnities in the case of acquisitions, significant liabilities may not be identified in due diligence or come to light after the expiration of warranty or indemnity periods. Additionally, while we would seek to limit our ongoing exposure, for example, through liability caps and period limits on warranties and indemnities in the case of disposals, some warranties and indemnities may give rise to unexpected and significant liabilities. If we fail to realize any such anticipated benefits, or if we experience any such unanticipated or unidentified effects in connection with any future acquisitions, investments or dispositions, we could suffer a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Finally, strategic investments may involve additional risks associated with holding a minority or noncontrolling position in an illiquid business or asset, including losses on investment along with failures to realize anticipated strategic benefits associated with an investment.

Our future efforts to sell shares of our common stock or raise additional capital may be inhibited by regulations.

As certain of our subsidiaries are members of FINRA and other SROs, we are subject to certain regulations regarding changes in ownership or control and material changes in operations. For example, FINRA Rule 1017 generally provides that FINRA approval must be obtained in connection with certain change of ownership or control transactions, such as a transaction that results in a single entity or person owning 25% or more our equity. Similarly, VFIL, VETL and VIUK, our regulated subsidiaries in Ireland and the U.K., are subject to change in control regulations promulgated by the CBI and/or the FCA, and other registered or regulated foreign subsidiaries may be subject to similar regulations in applicable jurisdictions. As a result of these regulations, our future efforts to sell shares of our common stock or raise additional capital may be delayed or prohibited. We may be subject to similar restrictions in other jurisdictions in which we operate.

We are dependent on the continued service of certain key executives, the loss or diminished performance of whom could have a material adverse effect on our business, and our success depends in part on our ability to identify, recruit and retain skilled management and technical personnel.

Our performance is substantially dependent on the performance of our senior management, including Douglas Cifu, our Chief Executive Officer, Joseph Molluso, our Co-President and Co-Chief Operating Officer, Brett Fairclough, our Co-President and Co-Chief Operating Officer, Sean Galvin, our Chief Financial Officer and Stephen Cavoli, our Executive Vice President, Global Head of Execution Services. In connection with and subsequent to the IPO, we have entered into employment and other related agreements with certain members of our senior management team that restrict their ability to compete with us should they decide to leave our Company. Even though we have entered into these agreements, we cannot be sure that any member of our senior management will remain with us or that they will not compete with us in the future. The loss of any member of our senior management team could impair our ability to execute our business plan and growth strategy and have a negative impact on our revenues, in addition to potentially causing employee morale problems and/or the loss of key employees. In particular, Mr. Cifu invests in other businesses and spends time on such matters, which could divert his attention from us. Our employment agreement with Mr. Cifu specifically permits his participation in and attention to certain other business activities, including but not necessarily limited to his role as the Vice Chairman and Alternate Governor of the Florida Panthers, a National Hockey League franchise. We cannot guarantee that these or other permitted outside activities will not impact his performance as Chief Executive Officer.
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Our future success depends, in part, upon our continued ability to identify, attract, hire and retain highly qualified personnel, including skilled technical, management, product and technology, trading, sales and marketing personnel, all of whom are in high demand and are often subject to competing offers. Competition for qualified personnel in the financial services industry is intense and we cannot assure you that we will be able to hire or retain a sufficient number of qualified personnel to meet our requirements, or that we will be able to do so at salary, benefit and other compensation costs that are acceptable to us or that would allow us to achieve operating results consistent with our historical results. A loss of qualified employees, or an inability to attract, retain and motivate additional highly skilled employees in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We may be subject to increased risks or business disruption, incur losses or suffer reputational harm in relation to or as a result of climate change.

Climate change could manifest as a financial risk to us either through changes in the physical climate or from the process of transitioning to a low-carbon economy, including changes in climate policy or in the regulation of financial institutions with respect to risks posed by climate change. Potential events or disruptions of this nature include significant rainfall, flooding, increased frequency or intensity of wildfires, prolonged drought, rising sea levels and rising heat index. Additionally, our reputation and client relationships may be damaged as a result of our involvement, or our clients’ involvement, in certain industries or projects associated with causing or exacerbating climate change, as well as any decisions we make to continue to conduct or change our activities in response to considerations relating to climate change. New regulations or guidance relating to climate change, as well as the perspectives of shareholders, employees and other stakeholders regarding climate change, may affect whether and on what terms and conditions we engage in certain activities or offer certain products.

Cryptocurrency and other digital assets are an emerging asset class that carries unique risk, including the risk of financial loss.

The value of cryptocurrencies and other digital assets, whether traded in spot, ETP/ETF, or other form, is based in part on market adoption and future expectations, which may or may not be realized. As a result, the prices of cryptocurrencies and other digital assets are highly speculative. Due to this highly volatile nature, prices of cryptocurrencies and other digital assets have been subject to dramatic fluctuations which may impact our balance sheet. For example, if the price of the cryptocurrencies we hold in inventory drops below the price we paid to acquire this inventory, we could incur a loss. Moreover, if our systems fail at managing our inventory or customer orders, we could be left with excess inventory that increases our exposure to the volatility of the price of cryptocurrencies.

Further, because cryptocurrency, along with other digital assets, is a new and emerging asset class with unique electronic exposure, there is a high degree of fraud, theft, cyberattacks and other forms of risk in the cryptocurrency space, and legal, regulatory and market standards around market conduct, transparency, custody, segregation of client assets, clearing and settlement for these assets, including when traded in spot, ETP/ETF, or other form, are all evolving or unsettled, which can increase risks for us and other market participants. While the Company employs a variety of controls to mitigate risk of loss and theft in the cryptocurrency positions we maintain, it is possible, for example, for electronic wallet keys to become lost or stolen, for blockchains to experience detrimental changes, such as forks, or for our cryptocurrency exchange and custodian partners to experience cybersecurity incidents. In the event of such events, we could experience financial loss, we could lose customers and clients as a result of reputational damage, and we may face regulatory or legal consequences. Although we maintain insurance, there can be no assurance that liabilities or losses we may incur will be covered under such policies or that the amount of insurance will be adequate.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

Regulatory and legal uncertainties could harm our business.

Securities and derivatives businesses are heavily regulated. Firms in the financial services industry have been subject to an increasingly regulated environment over recent years, and penalties and fines sought by regulatory authorities have increased considerably. In addition, following recent congressional, regulatory and news media attention to U.S. equities market structure, the regulatory and enforcement environment has created uncertainty with respect to various types of transactions that historically had been entered into by financial services firms and that were generally believed to be permissible and appropriate. The retail trading environment in the U.S., relationships between broker-dealers and market making firms, short selling and “high frequency” and other forms of low latency or electronic trading strategies continue to be the focus of extensive regulatory scrutiny by federal, state and foreign regulators and SROs, and such scrutiny is likely to continue. Our market making and
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trading activities are characterized by substantial volumes, an emphasis on technology and certain other characteristics that are also commonly associated with high frequency trading and we engage in direct-to-client market making services across multiple asset classes primarily to sell-side clients including global, national and regional broker-dealers and banks and in the context of our market making and trading activities, we are party to various remuneration and rebate arrangements, including payment for order flow, profit-sharing relationships, and exchange fee and rebate structures.

Additionally, the regulatory and legal status and classification of various cryptocurrencies and other digital assets is subject to substantial uncertainty. For example, a given digital asset could be considered a security, a commodity or currency, or some combination thereof, and therefore may be subject to rules and regulations promulgated by federal regulators, including but not limited to the SEC, the CFTC, the Department of Treasury, in addition to state regulators. While our participation in this asset class has been limited thus far, changes in this regulatory environment, including changing interpretations and the implementation of new or varying regulatory requirements by the government, may significantly affect or change the manner in which we currently conduct some aspects of our business or may significantly impact or limit our ability to increase our participation or could otherwise expose us to potential liability or losses.

In addition, the financial services industry is heavily regulated in many foreign countries. The varying compliance requirements of these different regulatory jurisdictions and other factors may limit our ability to conduct business or expand internationally. For example, MiFID, which was implemented in November 2007, has been replaced by MiFID II/Markets in Financial Investments Regulation (“MiFIR”), which was adopted by the European Parliament on April 15, 2014 and by the Council on May 13, 2014, entered into force on July 2, 2014, and became effective on January 3, 2018. MiFID II requires certain types of firms, including VFIL, to post firm quotes at competitive prices and supplements previous requirements with regard to investment firms’ risk controls related to the safe operation of electronic systems. MiFID II also imposed additional requirements on market structure, such as the introduction of a harmonized tick size regime, the introduction of trading venues known as Organized Trading Facilities, and the promulgation of a bilateral trading arrangement called the Systematic Internaliser regime, new open access provisions, market making requirements and various other pre‑ and post‑trade risk management requirements. The MiFID II regime is currently under review, with European Union authorities proposing to make further changes to the regime. In its communication on “The European economic and financial system: fostering openness, strength and resilience” of January 19, 2021, the European Commission confirmed its intention to propose to make changes with a view to improving simplifying and further harmonizing capital markets’ transparency as part of the review of the MiFID II and MiFIR framework. On December 21, 2022, the Council of the European Union published the texts of its general approach on the proposed regulation to amend MiFIR “as regards enhancing market data transparency, removing obstacles to the emergence of a consolidated tape, optimizing the trading obligations and amending Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012” and on the proposed directive “amending Directive 2014/65/EU on markets in financial instruments and amending Directive 2013/36/EU on access of the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms, amending Directive 2002/87/EC and repealing Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC”, each dated December 16, 2022; as well as publishing an “I” item note, also dated December 16, 2022, inviting the Council’s Permanent Representatives Committee to agree the text of the mandate for negotiations with European Parliament on the basis of the published general approaches, with a view to reaching agreement at first reading. The Council of the European Union further published an Information Note with respect to the “Proposal for a Regulation (EU) of the European Parliament and of the Council of amending Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as regards enhancing data transparency, removing obstacles to the emergence of consolidated tapes, optimizing the trading obligations and prohibiting receiving payments for forwarding client orders” and the “Proposal for the Directive (EU) 2023/ of the European Parliament and of the Council of amending Directive 2014/65/EU on markets in financial instruments”, dated October 18, 2023, which includes the final compromise texts for each proposed regulation. The Information Note details the draft overall compromise package as agreed by the Permanent Representatives’ Committee, with the Council of the European Union inviting the European Parliament to adopt its position at first reading in accordance with the compromise package, with a view to reaching an agreement and adopting the act at first reading. Each of these and other proposals may impose technological and compliance costs on us. Any of these laws, rules or regulations, as well as changes in legislation or regulation and changes in market customs and practices could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. These risks may be enhanced by recent scrutiny of electronic trading and market structure from regulators, lawmakers and the financial news media.

In addition, we maintain borrowing facilities with banks, prime brokers and Futures Commission Merchants (“FCMs”), and we obtain uncommitted margin financing from our prime brokers and FCMs, which are in many cases affiliated with banks. In response to the 2008 financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision issued a new, more stringent capital and liquidity framework known as Basel III, which national banking regulators have been implementing in the various jurisdictions in which our lenders may be incorporated. In the E.U., on December 24, 2019, a Regulation on the prudential requirements for Investment Firms (“IFR”) and a Directive on the prudential supervision of Investments Firms (“IFD”) entered into force. The IFR and IFD introduced new prudential requirements for investment firms, classifying them into different categories depending on the Company’s balance-sheet size and types of activity. The main provisions of the IFR and IFD were applicable from the end of June 2021. Certain Level 2 texts are still outstanding which are required to provide clarity on certain provisions in the IFR/IFD. As these rules are implemented and in certain cases impose more stringent capital and liquidity
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requirements, certain of our lenders may revise the terms of our borrowing facilities or margin financing arrangements, reduce the amount of financing they provide, or cease providing us financing, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Pending, proposed and other potential changes in laws and rules may adversely impact our business.

Certain market participants, SROs, government officials and regulators have requested that the U.S. Congress, the SEC, and the CFTC propose and adopt additional laws and rules, including rules relating to payment for order flow, off-exchange trading, additional registration requirements, restrictions on co‑location, order‑to‑execution ratios, minimum quote life for orders, incremental messaging fees to be imposed by exchanges for “excessive” order placements and/or cancellations, further transaction taxes, tick sizes, changes to maker/taker rebates programs, and other market structure proposals. For example, the Committee on Financial Services of the U.S. House of Representatives held hearings on the events surrounding the January 2021 market volatility and disruptions surrounding Gamestop and other “meme” stocks at which various members of Congress expressed their concerns about various market practices, including payment for order flow and short-selling. The SEC has recently proposed several rule changes focused on equity market structure reform. These proposals include, but are not limited to, (i) Proposed Rule 615 of Regulation NMS, which proposes to dramatically change U.S. equities market structure, the routing, handling and potentially the amount, character and cost of retail order flow, (ii) Regulation Best Execution, which would impose best execution requirements on broker-dealers which would be distinct from, but overlapping with, FINRA’s existing best execution rule (Rule 5310), (iii) proposed rule amendments to minimum pricing increments under Rule 612 or Regulation NMS, access fee caps under Rule 610 of Regulation NMS, acceleration of implementation of certain Market Data Infrastructure Rules, and amendment to the odd-lot information definition adopted under the MDI rules (collectively referred to as the “tick size, access fees and infostructure rule proposals”), (iv) amendments to Rule 605 of Regulation NMS, (v) a series of amendments to the definition of Exchange and Alternative Trading Systems (ATS), which would expand the scope of exchange and ATS registration and compliance requirements, and (vi) amendments to Regulation SCI which would broaden the scope of covered technology platforms business models. Additionally, rules to amend the definitions of “dealer” and “government securities dealer” within the Exchange Act were recently adopted and are expected to broaden the scope of these registrant categories. Regulators may propose other market structure changes, particularly considering the continued regulatory, congressional and media scrutiny of U.S. equities market structure, the retail trading environment in the U.S., wholesale market making and the relationships between retail broker-dealers and market making firms, including but not limited to payment for order flow arrangements, other remuneration arrangements such as profit-sharing relationships and exchange fee and rebate structures, ATSs and off-exchange trading more generally, high frequency trading, short selling, market fragmentation, colocation, and access to market data feeds.

Any or all of these proposals or additional proposals may be adopted by the SEC, CFTC or other U.S. or foreign legislative or regulatory bodies, and news media attention to electronic trading and market structure could increase the likelihood of adoption. These potential market structure and regulatory changes could cause a change in the manner in which we make markets, limit, restrict or otherwise adversely affect our ability to interact with certain order flow, impose additional costs and expenses on our business or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Non‑compliance with applicable laws or regulatory requirements could subject us to sanctions and could negatively impact our reputation, prospects, revenues and earnings.

Our subsidiaries are subject to regulations in the U.S., and our foreign subsidiaries are subject to regulations abroad, in each case covering all aspects of their business. Regulatory bodies that exercise or may exercise authority over us include, without limitation, in the U.S., the SEC, FINRA, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the Intercontinental Exchange, the CFTC, the NFA Exchanges and the various state securities regulators; in the European Union, ESMA; in Ireland, the CBI; in Switzerland, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority; in France, the Autorité des Marchés Financiers (“AMF”); in the United Kingdom, the FCA; in Hong Kong, the SFC; in Australia, the ASIC; in Canada, the CIRO and various Canadian provincial securities commissions; in Singapore, the MAS; in India, the Securities and Exchange Board of India; and in Japan, the Financial Services Agency and the Japan Securities Dealers Association. Our mode of operation and profitability may be directly affected by additional legislation and changes in rules promulgated by various domestic and foreign government agencies and SROs that oversee our businesses, as well as by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, including the potential imposition of additional capital and margin requirements and/or transaction taxes. While we endeavor to deliver required annual filings in all jurisdictions in a timely manner, we cannot guarantee that we will meet every applicable filing deadline globally. Noncompliance with applicable laws or regulations could result in sanctions being levied against us, including fines, penalties, judgments, disgorgement, restitution and censures, suspension or expulsion from a certain jurisdiction, SRO or market or the revocation or limitation of licenses. Noncompliance with applicable laws or regulations could also negatively impact our reputation, prospects, revenues and earnings. In addition, changes in current laws or regulations or in governmental policies could negatively impact our operations, revenues and earnings.

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Domestic and foreign stock exchanges, other SROs and state and foreign securities commissions can censure, fine, impose undertakings, issue cease‑and‑desist orders and suspend or expel a broker‑dealer or other market participant or any of its officers or employees. Our ability to comply with all applicable laws and rules is largely dependent on our internal systems to ensure compliance, as well as our ability to attract and retain qualified compliance personnel. We could be subject to disciplinary or other actions in the future due to claimed noncompliance, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We have been, are currently, and may in the future be, the subject of one or more regulatory or SRO enforcement actions, including but not limited to targeted and routine regulatory inquiries and investigations involving Best Execution, Regulation NMS, Regulation SHO, Regulation SCI, market access rules, capital requirements and other domestic and foreign securities rules and regulations. We and other broker-dealers and trading firms have also been the subject of requests for information and documents from the SEC and other regulators. We have cooperated and complied with these requests for information and documents. Our business or reputation could be negatively impacted if it were determined that disciplinary or other enforcement actions were required. To continue to operate and to expand our services internationally, we will have to comply with the regulatory controls of each country in which we conduct or intend to conduct business, the requirements of which may not be clearly defined. The varying compliance requirements of these different regulatory jurisdictions, which are often unclear, may limit our ability to continue existing international operations and further expand internationally.

Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to regulatory capital rules of the SEC, FINRA, other SROs and foreign regulators. These rules, which specify minimum capital requirements for our regulated subsidiaries, are designed to measure the general financial integrity and liquidity of a broker‑dealer and require that at least a minimum part of its assets be kept in relatively liquid form. In general, net capital is defined as net worth (assets minus liabilities), plus qualifying subordinated borrowings, less certain mandatory deductions that result from, among other things, excluding assets that are not readily convertible into cash and from valuing conservatively certain other assets. Among these deductions are adjustments, commonly called haircuts, which reflect the possibility of a decline in the market value of an asset before disposition, and non‑allowable assets.

Failure to maintain the required minimum capital may subject our regulated subsidiaries to a fine, requirement to cease conducting business, suspension, revocation of registration or expulsion by the applicable regulatory authorities, reputational harm and ultimately could require the relevant entity’s liquidation. Events relating to capital adequacy could give rise to regulatory actions that could limit business expansion or require business reduction. SEC and SRO net capital rules prohibit payments of dividends, redemptions of stock, prepayments of subordinated indebtedness and the making of any unsecured advances or loans to a stockholder, employee or affiliate, in certain circumstances, including if such payment would reduce the Company’s net capital below required levels. Similar issues and risks arise in connection with the capital adequacy requirements of foreign regulators.

A change in the net capital rules, the imposition of new rules or any unusually large charges against net capital could limit our operations that require the intensive use of capital and also could restrict our ability to withdraw capital from our broker‑dealer subsidiaries. A significant operating loss or any unusually large charge against net capital could negatively impact our ability to expand or even maintain our present levels of business. Similar issues and risks arise in connection with the capital adequacy requirements of foreign regulators. Any of these results could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to risks relating to litigation and potential securities law liability.

We are exposed to substantial risks of liability under federal and state securities laws and other federal and state laws and court decisions, as well as rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC, the CFTC, state securities regulators, SROs and foreign regulatory agencies. These risks may be enhanced by recent scrutiny of electronic trading and market structure from regulators, lawmakers and the financial news media. We are also subject to the risk of litigation and claims that may be without merit. At present and from time to time, we, our past and present officers, directors and employees are and may be named in legal actions, regulatory investigations and proceedings, arbitrations and administrative claims and may be subject to claims alleging the violations of laws, rules and regulations, some of which may ultimately result in the payment of fines, awards, judgments and settlements. We could incur significant legal expenses in defending ourselves against and resolving lawsuits or claims even if we believe them to be meritless. An adverse resolution of any current or future lawsuits or claims against us could result in a negative perception of our Company and cause the market price of our common stock to decline or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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Proposed legislation in the European Union, the U.S. and other jurisdictions that would impose taxes on certain financial transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

On September 28, 2011, the former president of the European Commission officially presented a plan to create a new financial transactions tax which in February 2013 was formally presented for consideration by the European Commission under an enhanced cooperation procedure among 11 European Union Member States (Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia and Slovakia) for the purposes of a financial transaction tax among those Member States (the “EU Financial Transaction Tax”). The EU Financial Transaction Tax was initially intended to be implemented within those 11 European Union Member States in January 2014. In 2016, Estonia, one of the original members, withdrew its support for the proposal. As of December 31, 2023 such tax has not yet been implemented. On October 15, 2020, the Spanish Government published Law 5/2020 on the Spanish Financial Transaction Tax (“Spanish FTT”). The Spanish FTT constitutes a tax to be applied to acquisitions of equity shares in Spanish companies having a market capitalization greater than EUR1bn (as of 1st December the previous year), that are admitted to trading on a Spanish market or a market based in another E.U. member state. The Spanish FTT was applied to transactions from trade date of January 14, 2020, although it does contain certain exemptions, including in relation to market making activity.

In 2013, U.S. Representative Peter DeFazio and former Senator Thomas Harkin introduced proposed legislation, a bill entitled the “Wall Street Trading and Speculators Tax Act,” which would have, subject to certain exceptions, imposed an excise tax on the purchase of a security, including equities, bonds, debentures, other debt and interests in derivative financial instruments, if the purchase occurred or was cleared on a trading facility in the U.S. and the purchaser or seller is a U.S. person. More recently, in late 2018 and 2019 U.S. legislators, including U.S. Senators Kirsten Gillibrand and Brian Schatz, have announced proposals or plans that include a financial transaction fee. At the state level recently, the state of New Jersey has considered a bill in the state legislature providing for a financial transaction tax on trades processed on any server located in New Jersey, with other states, including New York, discussing similar measures. Discussions in New York have included a proposed bill which would reestablish a stock transfer tax by repealing a rebate previously implemented and applied to such tax since 1981. Additional legislation may be proposed at the federal and state levels from time to time.

These proposed transaction taxes would apply to certain aspects of our business and transactions in which we are involved. Any such tax would increase our cost of doing business to the extent that (i) the tax is regularly applicable to transactions in the markets in which we operate, (ii) the tax does not include exceptions for market makers or market making activities that is broad enough to cover our activities or (iii) we are unable to widen our bid/ask spreads in the markets in which such a tax would be applicable to compensate for its imposition. Furthermore, the proposed taxes may reduce or negatively impact trading volume and transactions on which we are dependent for revenues. While it is difficult to assess the impact the proposed taxes could have on us, if either transaction tax is implemented or any similar tax is implemented in any other jurisdiction in which we operate, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could suffer a material adverse effect, and could be impacted to a greater degree than other market participants.

We are exposed to risks associated with our international operations and expansion and failure to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our international operations may increase costs, reduce profits, limit growth or subject us to liability.

We are exposed to risks and uncertainties inherent in doing business in international markets, particularly in the heavily regulated broker‑dealer industry. Such risks and uncertainties include political, economic and financial instability, unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, tariffs and other trade barriers, exchange rate fluctuations, applicable currency controls, the imposition of restrictions on currency conversion or the transfer of funds, limitations on our ability to repatriate non‑U.S. earnings in a tax efficient manner and difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations, including reliance on local experts. Such restrictions generally include those by imposed by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”) and trade sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). The FCPA is intended to prohibit bribery of foreign officials and requires companies whose securities are listed in the U.S. to keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect those companies’ transactions and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against designated foreign states, organizations and individuals. Though we have policies in place designed to comply with applicable OFAC sanctions, rules and regulations as well as the FCPA and equivalent laws and rules of other jurisdictions, if we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we could be exposed to claims for damages, financial penalties, reputational harm, incarceration of employees and restrictions on our operations and cash flows.

In addition, the varying compliance requirements of these different regulatory jurisdictions and other factors may limit our ability to successfully conduct or expand our business internationally and may increase our costs of investment. Expansion
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into international locations involves substantial operational and execution risk. We may not be able to manage these costs or risks effectively.

Brexit continues to pose a risk of negatively impacting the global economy, financial markets and our business.

Following the UK's withdrawal of its membership from the EU in 2020, an event commonly referred to as “Brexit” and the conclusion of a subsequent transition period in 2021, U.K. investment firms which had previously used passporting permissions under MiFID II to provide services to clients in the E.U., ceased to subject to the E.U.'s MiFID II regime, and E.U. investment firms could no longer automatically access U.K. markets on the basis of MiFID passporting rights. Following Brexit, Virtu services its UK client-base via various means, including a UK authorized third-country branch of VETL, and by its UK investment firm, VIUK, which is authorized and regulated by the FCA with permission to operate an MTF.

Poor future relations between the U.K. and E.U., however, could adversely affect European or worldwide political, fiscal, regulatory, economic or market conditions and could contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets. Disruptions and uncertainty caused by these events may also cause our clients to closely monitor their costs and reduce their spending budget on our services. Potential regulatory divergence between the U.K. and E.U. could cause disruption to our business in EMEA, through incurring implementation costs and/or other operational uplift required to comply with the distinct legal regimes. Any of these effects of the U.K.’s departure from the E.U., and others we cannot anticipate or that may evolve over time, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In connection with our historical acquisitions, the Company is subject to potential liabilities that could materially and adversely affect our business.

In connection with the Acquisition of KCG and the ITG Acquisition, we assumed potential liabilities, indemnification obligations, and other risks relating to KCG's and ITG’s business, including but not limited to those liabilities and risks arising from or related to pending, threatened or potential litigation or regulatory matters. In some instances, these matters may ultimately result in a disciplinary action and/or a civil or administrative action, penalties, fines, judgments, censures and settlements. To the extent we have not identified such liabilities or miscalculated their potential financial impact, these liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, results of operations, financial condition and/or cash flows.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure

We are a holding company and our principal asset is our 57.8% of equity interest in Virtu Financial, and we are accordingly dependent upon distributions from Virtu Financial to pay dividends, if any, taxes and other expenses.

We are a holding company and our principal asset is our direct and indirect ownership of 57.8% of the Virtu Financial Units as of December 31, 2023. We have no independent means of generating revenue. As the sole managing member of Virtu Financial, we cause Virtu Financial to make distributions to its equity holders, including the Founder Post-IPO Member, Virtu Employee Holdco, certain current and former members of management of the Company and their affiliates (the “Management Members”) and us, in amounts sufficient to fund dividends to our stockholders in accordance with our dividend policy and, as further described below, to cover all applicable taxes payable by us and any payments we are obligated to make under the tax receivable agreements we entered into as part of the Reorganization Transactions, but we are limited in our ability to cause Virtu Financial to make these and other distributions to us (including for purposes of paying corporate and other overhead expenses and dividends) under our Credit Agreement governing our First Lien Term Loan Facility (as defined below). In addition, certain laws and regulations may result in restrictions on Virtu Financial’s ability to make distributions to its equity holders (including us), or the ability of its subsidiaries to make distributions to it. These include:

the SEC Uniform Net Capital Rule (Rule 15c3‑1), which requires Virtu Financial’s registered broker‑dealer subsidiary to maintain specified levels of net capital;
FINRA Rule 4110, which imposes a requirement of prior FINRA approval for any distribution by Virtu Financial’s FINRA member registered broker‑dealer subsidiary in excess of 10% of its excess net capital; and
the requirement for prior approval from the CBI before Virtu Financial’s regulated Irish subsidiary completes any distribution or dividend.

To the extent that we need funds and Virtu Financial is restricted from making such distributions to us, under applicable law or regulation, as a result of covenants in our Credit Agreement, we may not be able to obtain such funds on terms acceptable to us or at all and as a result could suffer a material adverse effect on our liquidity and financial condition.

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Under the Third Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of Virtu Financial (as amended, the “Amended and Restated Virtu Financial LLC Agreement”), Virtu Financial from time to time makes distributions in cash to its equity holders, including the Founder Post‑IPO Member, the trust that holds equity interests in Virtu Financial on behalf of certain employees of ours based outside the United States, which we refer to as the “Employee Trust”, Virtu Employee Holdco and us, in amounts sufficient to cover the taxes on their allocable share of the taxable income of Virtu Financial. These distributions are treated as advances and may be computed based on Virtu Financial’s estimate of the net taxable income of Virtu Financial allocable to each holder of Virtu Financial Units multiplied by an assumed tax rate equal to the highest effective marginal combined U.S. federal, state and local income tax rate prescribed for an individual or corporate resident in New York, New York (taking into account the non-deductibility of certain expenses and the character of our income), or another rate as determined by the Company in its discretion for one or more holders. As a result of (i) potential differences in the amount of net taxable income allocable to us and to Virtu Financial’s other equity holders, (ii) the lower tax rate applicable to corporations than individuals, (iii) the favorable tax benefits that we anticipate from (a) the exchange of Virtu Financial Units and corresponding shares of Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock, (b) payments under the tax receivable agreements and (c) future deductions attributable to the prior acquisition of interests in Virtu Financial by certain affiliates of Silver Lake Partners and Temasek, and (vi) additional distributions of profits which may be generated by Virtu Financial and its subsidiaries to equity holders, we expect that the distributions we receive may exceed our tax liabilities, regular dividend and other obligations. Our Board of Directors will determine the appropriate uses for any excess cash so accumulated, which may include, among other uses, the payment of obligations under the tax receivable agreements, the payment of other expenses or the repurchase of shares of common stock or Virtu Financial Units. We will have no obligation to distribute such cash (or other available cash) to our shareholders. No adjustments to the exchange ratio for Virtu Financial Units and corresponding shares of common stock will be made as a result of any cash distribution by us or any retention of cash by us, and in any event the ratio will remain one‑to‑one.

We are controlled by the Founder Post‑IPO Member, whose interests in our business may be different than yours, and certain statutory provisions afforded to stockholders are not applicable to us.

The Founder Post‑IPO Member controls approximately 86.5% of the combined voting power of our common stock as a result of its ownership of our Class C and Class D Common Stock, each share of which is entitled to 1 vote and 10 votes, respectively, on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders.

The Founder Post‑IPO Member has the ability to substantially control our Company, including the ability to control any action requiring the general approval of our stockholders, including the election of our Board of Directors, the adoption of amendments to our certificate of incorporation and by‑laws and the approval of any merger or sale of substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership and voting power may also delay, defer or even prevent an acquisition by a third party or other change of control of our Company and may make some transactions more difficult or impossible without the support of the Founder Post‑IPO Member, even if such events are in the best interests of minority stockholders. This concentration of voting power with the Founder Post‑IPO Member may have a negative impact on the price of our Class A Common Stock. In addition, because shares of our Class B Common Stock and Class D Common Stock each have 10 votes per share on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, the Founder Post‑IPO Member is able to control our Company as long as it owns at least 25% of our issued and outstanding Common Stock.

The Founder Post-IPO Member’s interests may not be fully aligned with yours, which could lead to actions that are not in your best interest. Because the Founder Post-IPO Member holds part of its economic interest in our business through Virtu Financial, rather than through the public company, it may have conflicting interests with holders of shares of our Class A Common Stock. For example, the Founder Post-IPO Member may have a different tax position from us, which could influence its decisions regarding whether and when we should dispose of assets or incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, especially in light of the existence of the tax receivable agreements that we entered into in connection with the IPO, and whether and when we should undergo certain changes of control within the meaning of the tax receivable agreements or terminate the tax receivable agreements. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration these tax or other considerations even where no similar benefit would accrue to us. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure - We are required to pay the Virtu Post-IPO Members and the Investor Post-IPO Stockholders for certain tax benefits we may claim, and the amounts we may pay could be significant.” In addition, pursuant to an exchange agreement, the holders of Virtu Financial Units and shares of our Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock are not required to participate in a proposed sale of our Company that is tax‑free for our stockholders unless the transaction is also tax‑free for such holders of Virtu Financial Units and shares of our Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock. This requirement could limit structural alternatives available to us in any such proposed transaction and could have the effect of discouraging transactions that might benefit you as a holder of shares of our Class A Common Stock. In addition, the Founder Post-IPO Member’s significant ownership in us and resulting ability to effectively control us may discourage someone from making a significant equity investment in us, or could discourage transactions involving a change in control, including
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transactions in which you as a holder of shares of our Class A Common Stock might otherwise receive a premium for your shares over the then‑current market price.

We have opted out of Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “Delaware General Corporation Law”), which prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination transaction with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the interested stockholder became such unless the transaction fits within an applicable exemption, such as board approval of the business combination or the transaction which resulted in such stockholder becoming an interested stockholder. Therefore, the Founder Post‑IPO Member is able to transfer control of us to a third party by transferring its shares of our common stock (subject to certain restrictions and limitations), which would not require the approval of our Board of Directors or our other stockholders.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the doctrine of “corporate opportunity” does not apply against the Founder Post-IPO Member, Mr. Viola, any of our non‑employee directors or any of their respective affiliates in a manner that would prohibit them from investing in competing businesses or doing business with our clients or customers. In addition, subject to the restrictions on competitive activities described below, Mr. Cifu is permitted to become engaged in, or provide services to, any other business or activity in which Mr. Viola is currently engaged or permitted to become engaged, to the extent that Mr. Cifu’s level of participation in such businesses or activities is consistent with his current participation in such businesses and activities. The Amended and Restated Virtu Financial LLC Agreement provides that Mr. Viola, in addition to our other executive officers and our employees that are Virtu Post-IPO Members, including Mr. Cifu, may not directly or indirectly engage in certain competitive activities until the third anniversary of the date on which such person ceases to be an officer, director or employee of ours. Our non‑employee directors are not subject to any such restriction. To the extent that the Founder Post-IPO Member, Mr. Viola, our non‑employee directors or any of their respective affiliates invests in other businesses, they may have differing interests than our other stockholders. Messrs. Viola and Cifu also have business relationships outside of our business.

We may be unable to remain in compliance with the covenants contained in our Credit Agreement and our obligation to comply with these covenants may adversely affect our ability to operate our business.

The covenants in our Credit Agreement may negatively impact our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities. Our Credit Agreement restricts our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness, dispose of assets, guarantee debt obligations, repay other indebtedness, pay dividends, pledge assets, make investments, including in certain of our operating subsidiaries, make acquisitions or consummate mergers or consolidations and engage in certain transactions with subsidiaries and affiliates.

A failure to comply with the restrictions contained in our Credit Agreement could lead to an event of default, which could result in an acceleration of our indebtedness. Our future operating results may not be sufficient to enable compliance with the covenants in our Credit Agreement or to remedy such a default. In addition, in the event of an acceleration, we may not have or be able to obtain sufficient funds to refinance our indebtedness or to make any accelerated payments. Even if we were able to obtain new financing, we would not be able to guarantee that the new financing would be on commercially reasonable terms. If we default on our indebtedness, our business, financial condition and results of operation could suffer a material adverse effect.

We are exempt from certain corporate governance requirements since we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq rules, and as a result our stockholders do not have the protections afforded by these corporate governance requirements.

The Founder Post‑IPO Member controls more than 50% of our combined voting power. As a result, we are considered a “controlled company” for purposes of the Nasdaq rules and corporate governance standards, and therefore we are permitted and may elect not to or may have elected not to, comply with certain Nasdaq corporate governance requirements, including those that would otherwise require our Board of Directors to have a majority of independent directors and require that we either establish a Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees, each comprised entirely of independent directors, or otherwise ensure that the compensation of our executive officers and nominees for directors are determined or recommended to the Board of Directors by the independent members of the Board of Directors. Accordingly, holders of our Class A Common Stock do not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the Nasdaq rules and corporate governance standards, and the ability of our independent directors to influence our business policies and affairs may be reduced.

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We are required to pay the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders for certain tax benefits we may claim, and the amounts we may pay could be significant.

In connection with the Reorganization Transactions, we acquired equity interests in Virtu Financial from an affiliate of Silver Lake Partners (which, following a secondary offering completed in November 2015, no longer holds any equity interest in us) and the Temasek Pre-IPO Member in the Mergers. In addition, we used a portion of the net proceeds from our IPO and our Secondary Offerings (as defined below) to purchase Virtu Financial Units and corresponding shares of Class C Common Stock from certain Virtu Post-IPO Members, including affiliates of Silver Lake Partners (the “Silver Lake Post-IPO Members”), the Founder Post-IPO Member, and certain employees. These acquisitions of interests in Virtu Financial, along with certain subsequent exchanges of interests in Virtu Financial by current and former employees, resulted in tax basis adjustments to the assets of Virtu Financial that were allocated to us and our subsidiaries. Future acquisitions of interests in Virtu Financial are expected to produce favorable tax attributes. In addition, future exchanges by the Virtu Post-IPO Members of Virtu Financial Units and corresponding shares of Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock, as the case may be, for shares of our Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock, respectively, are expected to produce favorable tax attributes. These tax attributes would not be available to us in the absence of such transactions. Both the existing and anticipated tax basis adjustments are expected to reduce the amount of tax that we would otherwise be required to pay in the future.

We entered into three tax receivable agreements with the Virtu Post-IPO Members and the Investor Post-IPO Stockholders (one with the Founder Post-IPO Member, the Employee Trust, Virtu Employee Holdco and other post IPO investors, other than affiliates of Silver Lake Partners and affiliates of Temasek, another with the Investor Post-IPO Stockholders and the other with the Silver Lake Post-IPO Members) that provide for the payment by us to the Virtu Post-IPO Members and the Investor Post-IPO Stockholders (or their transferees of Virtu Financial Units or other assignees) of 85% of the amount of actual cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that we actually realize as a result of (i) any increase in tax basis in Virtu Financial’s assets resulting from (a) the acquisition of equity interests in Virtu Financial from an affiliate of Silver Lake Partners and Temasek, and the Temasek Pre-IPO Member in the Reorganization Transactions (which represents the unamortized portion of the increase in tax basis in Virtu Financial’s assets resulting from a prior acquisition of interests in Virtu Financial by an affiliate of Silver Lake Partners and Temasek, and the Temasek Pre-IPO Member), (b) the purchases of Virtu Financial Units (along with the corresponding shares of our Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock, as applicable) from certain of the Virtu Post-IPO Members using a portion of the net proceeds from the IPO or in any subsequent offering (including, without limitation, the Secondary Offerings), (c) exchanges by the Virtu Post-IPO Members of Virtu Financial Units (along with the corresponding shares of our Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock, as applicable) for shares of our Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock, as applicable, or (d) payments under the tax receivable agreements, (ii) any net operating losses available to us as a result of the Mergers and (iii) tax benefits related to imputed interest deemed arising as a result of payments made under the tax receivable agreements.

The actual increase in tax basis, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under these tax receivable agreements, will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the timing of exchanges by the Virtu Post‑IPO Members, the price of our Class A Common Stock at the time of the exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable, the amount and timing of the taxable income we generate in the future and the tax rate then applicable and the portion of our payments under the tax receivable agreements constituting imputed interest.

The payments we are required to make under the tax receivable agreements, which represent 85% of the amount of actual cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax or franchise tax that we actually realize, could be substantial. We expect that, as a result of the amount of the increases in the tax basis of the tangible and intangible assets of Virtu Financial, assuming no material changes in the relevant tax law and that we earn sufficient taxable income to realize in full the potential tax benefits described above, future payments to the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders in respect of the purchases, the exchanges and the Mergers in connection with the IPO, the purchases and exchanges completed in connection with our subsequent public offerings, the Secondary Offerings, and exchanges by employees and other Virtu Post-IPO Members will range from approximately $0.1 million to $22.1 million per year over the next 15 years. Future payments under the tax receivable agreements in respect of subsequent exchanges would be in addition to these amounts. The payments under the tax receivable agreements are not conditioned upon the Virtu Post‑IPO Members’ or the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders’ continued ownership of us.

In addition, although we are not aware of any issue that would cause the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) to challenge the tax basis increases or other benefits arising under the tax receivable agreements, the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders (or their transferees or other assignees) will not reimburse us for any payments previously made if such tax basis increases or other tax benefits are subsequently disallowed, except that any excess payments made to the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders will be netted against future payments otherwise to be made under the tax receivable agreements, if any, after our determination of such excess. As a result, in such circumstances we could
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make payments to the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders under the tax receivable agreements that are greater than our actual cash tax savings and may not be able to recoup those payments, which could negatively impact our liquidity.

In addition, the tax receivable agreements provide that, upon certain mergers, asset sales or other forms of business combination, or certain other changes of control, our or our successor’s obligations with respect to tax benefits would be based on certain assumptions, including that we or our successor would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize the increased tax deductions and tax basis and other benefits covered by the tax receivable agreements. As a result, upon a change of control, we could be required to make payments under a tax receivable agreement that are greater than the specified percentage of our actual cash tax savings, which could negatively impact our liquidity.

In addition, the tax receivable agreements provide that in the case of a change in control of the Company, the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders have the option to terminate the applicable tax receivable agreement, and we are required to make a payment to such electing party in an amount equal to the present value of future payments (calculated using a discount rate equal to the lesser of 6.5% or LIBOR plus 100 basis points, which may differ from our, or a potential acquirer’s, then‑current cost of capital) under the tax receivable agreement, which payment would be based on certain assumptions, including those relating to our future taxable income. In these situations, our obligations under the tax receivable agreements could have a substantial negative impact on our, or a potential acquirer’s, liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring, modifying or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control. These provisions of the tax receivable agreements may result in situations where the Virtu Post‑IPO Members and the Investor Post‑IPO Stockholders have interests that differ from or are in addition to those of our other shareholders. In addition, we could be required to make payments under the tax receivable agreements that are substantial and in excess of our, or a potential acquirer’s, actual cash savings in income tax.

Finally, because we are a holding company with no operations of our own, our ability to make payments under the tax receivable agreements are dependent on the ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions to us. Our Credit Agreement restricts the ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions to us, which could affect our ability to make payments under the tax receivable agreements. To the extent that we are unable to make payments under the tax receivable agreements for any reason, such payments will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid, which could negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows and could also affect our liquidity in periods in which such payments are made.

Risks Related to Our Class A Common Stock

Substantial future sales of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 89,092,686 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding and 4,940,674 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable pursuant to the Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan (as defined below) upon the vesting of granted but unvested restricted stock units, excluding 5,070,530 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable pursuant to the Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan but not yet granted, and 68,699,738 shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon potential exchanges and/or conversions. Of these shares, 83,725,007 shares sold in the IPO and the Secondary Offerings are freely tradable without further restriction under the Securities Act. The remaining balance of 79,008,091 shares of Class A Common Stock outstanding as of December 31, 2023 (including shares issuable upon exchange and/or conversion, or vesting) are “restricted securities,” as that term is defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act. The holders of these 79,008,091 shares of our Class A Common Stock, including shares issuable upon exchange, conversion or vesting as described above, are entitled to dispose of their shares pursuant to (i) the applicable holding period, volume and other restrictions of Rule 144 or (ii) another exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Additional sales of a substantial number of our shares of Class A Common Stock in the public market, or the perception that sales could occur, could have a material adverse effect on the price of our Class A Common Stock.

We have filed a registration statement under the Securities Act registering 26,000,000 shares of our Class A Common Stock reserved for issuance under our Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan, 5,070,530 of which are issuable, and we entered into the Registration Rights Agreement (as defined below) pursuant to which we granted demand and piggyback registration rights to the Founder Post-IPO Member, Temasek, another former stockholder, and piggyback registration rights to certain of the other Virtu Post-IPO Members.

Failure to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and stock price.

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Maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and is important in helping to prevent financial fraud. If we are unable to maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting, our business and operating results could be harmed. Under applicable SEC rules we must maintain internal controls over financial reporting to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley”) and the related rules of the SEC, which require, among other things, our management to assess annually the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our independent registered public accounting firm to issue a report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting with our Annual Report on Form 10-K. The internal control assessment required by Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley may divert internal resources and we may experience higher operating expenses, higher independent auditor and consulting fees during the implementation of these changes. Any material weaknesses or any failure to implement required new or improved controls or difficulties encountered in their implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations or result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements. If our management or our independent registered public accounting firm were to conclude in their reports that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our Class A Common Stock could drop significantly. Failure to comply with Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, FINRA or other regulatory authorities, as well as increase the risk of liability arising from litigation based on securities law.

We intend to pay regular dividends to our stockholders, but our ability to do so may be limited by our holding company structure, contractual restrictions and regulatory requirements.

We intend to pay cash dividends on a quarterly basis. See Item 5, “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.” However, we are a holding company, with our principal asset being our direct and indirect equity interests in Virtu Financial, and we will have no independent means of generating revenue. Accordingly, as the sole managing member of Virtu Financial, we intend to cause, and will rely on, Virtu Financial to make distributions to its equity holders, including the Founder Post-IPO Member, the Employee Trust, Virtu Employee Holdco and us, to fund our dividends. When Virtu Financial makes such distributions, the other equity holders of Virtu Financial will be entitled to receive equivalent distributions pro rata based on their economic interests in Virtu Financial. In order for Virtu Financial to make distributions, it may need to receive distributions from its subsidiaries. Certain of these subsidiaries are or may in the future be subject to regulatory capital requirements that limit the size or frequency of distributions. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - Non-compliance with applicable laws or regulatory requirements could subject us to sanctions and could negatively impact our reputation, prospects, revenues and earnings.” If Virtu Financial is unable to cause these subsidiaries to make distributions, we may not receive adequate distributions from Virtu Financial in order to fund our dividends.

Our Board of Directors will periodically review the cash generated from our business and the capital expenditures required to finance our global growth plans and determine whether to modify the amount of regular dividends and/or declare periodic special dividends to our stockholders. Our Board of Directors will take into account general economic and business conditions, including our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, including restrictions contained in our Credit Agreement, business prospects and other factors that our Board of Directors considers relevant. There can be no assurance that our Board of Directors will not reduce the amount of regular cash dividends or cause us to cease paying dividends altogether. In addition, our Credit Agreement limits the amount of distributions our subsidiaries, including Virtu Financial, can make to us and the purposes for which distributions could be made. Accordingly, we may not be able to pay dividends even if our Board of Directors would otherwise deem it appropriate. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Provisions in our charter documents and certain rules imposed by regulatory authorities may delay or prevent our acquisition by a third party.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and by-laws contain several provisions that may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire control of us without the approval of our Board of Directors. These provisions, which may delay, prevent or deter a merger, acquisition, tender offer, proxy contest or other transaction that stockholders may consider favorable, include the following, some of which may only become effective when the Founder Post-IPO Member or any of its affiliates or permitted transferees no longer beneficially own shares representing 25% of our issued and outstanding common stock (the “Triggering Event”):

the 10 vote per share feature of our Class B Common Stock and Class D Common Stock;
the division of our Board of Directors into three classes and the election of each class for three-year terms;
the sole ability of the Board of Directors to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the Board of Directors;
advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations;
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after the Triggering Event, provisions limiting stockholders' ability to call special meetings of stockholders, to require special meetings of stockholders to be called and to take action by written consent;
after the Triggering Event, in certain cases, the approval of holders of at least 75% of the shares entitled to vote generally on the making, alteration, amendment or repeal of our certificate of incorporation or by-laws will be required to adopt, amend or repeal our by-laws, or amend or repeal certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation;
after the Triggering Event, the required approval of holders of at least 75% of the shares entitled to vote at an election of the directors to remove directors, which removal may only be for cause; and
the ability of our Board of Directors to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without stockholder approval, which could be used, among other things, to institute a rights plan that would have the effect of significantly diluting the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, likely preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our Board of Directors.

These provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and by-laws could discourage potential takeover attempts and reduce the price that investors might be willing to pay for shares of our Class A Common Stock in the future, which could reduce the market price of our Class A Common Stock.

In addition, a third party attempting to acquire us or a substantial position in our Class A Common Stock may be delayed or ultimately prevented from doing so by change in ownership or control regulations to which certain of our regulated subsidiaries are subject. FINRA Rule 1017 generally provides that FINRA approval must be obtained in connection with any transaction resulting in a single person or entity owning, directly or indirectly, 25% or more of a member firm’s equity and would include a change in control of a parent company. Similarly, VFIL, VETL and VIUK are subject to change in control regulations promulgated by the CBI and/or the FCA. We may also be subject to similar restrictions in other jurisdictions in which we operate. These regulations could discourage potential takeover attempts and reduce the price that investors might be willing to pay for shares of our Class A Common Stock in the future, which could reduce the market price of our Class A Common Stock.

General Risks

Our stock price may be volatile.

The market price of our Class A Common Stock is subject to significant fluctuations in response to, among other factors, variations in our operating results and market conditions specific to our business. Furthermore, in recent years the stock market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including companies in our industry. The changes frequently appear to occur without regard to the operating performance of the affected companies. As such, the price of our Class A Common Stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with us, and these fluctuations could materially reduce the price of our Class A Common Stock and materially affect the value of your investment.

We incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.

As a public company, we incur significant levels of legal, accounting and other expenses. Sarbanes-Oxley and related rules of the SEC, together with the listing requirements of Nasdaq, impose significant requirements relating to disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We have incurred costs as a result of compliance with these public company requirements, and we may need to hire additional qualified personnel in order to continue to satisfy these public company requirements. We are required to expend considerable time and resources complying with public company regulations. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of our Class A Common Stock, fines, sanctions and other regulatory action.

Our stock price and trading volume could decline as a result of inaccurate or unfavorable research, or the cessation of research cover, about our business published by securities or industry analysts.

The trading market for our Class A Common Stock may be affected by the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our Class A Common Stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price could decline. In addition, the analysts’ projections may have little or no relationship to the results we actually achieve and could cause our stock price to decline if we fail to meet their projections. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, our stock price or trading volume could decline.

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We may incur losses as a result of unforeseen or catastrophic events, including the emergence of another pandemic, terrorist attacks, geopolitical and/or global conflict, war, extreme weather events or other natural disasters.

The occurrence of unforeseen or catastrophic events, including the emergence of a pandemic, such as COVID-19 or other widespread health emergency (or concerns over the possibility of such an emergency), vandalism, terrorist attacks, geopolitical and/or global conflict, war, extreme terrestrial or solar weather events or other natural disasters, could create economic and financial disruptions, and could lead to operational difficulties (including travel limitations) that could impair our ability to manage our businesses.

Although we have employed efforts to develop, implement and maintain reasonable disaster recovery and business continuity plans, we cannot guarantee that our systems will fully recover after a significant business disruption in a timely fashion or at all. Our ability to conduct business may be adversely impacted by a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our businesses and the communities in which we are located. This may include a disruption involving electrical, satellite, undersea cable or other communications, internet, transportation or other services facilities used by us, our employees or third parties with which we conduct business. If we are prevented from using any of our current trading operations, or if our business continuity operations do not work effectively, we may not have complete business continuity, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Virtu has established a Global Security team that, together with the Company's Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”), is responsible for the strategic planning, execution, and enforcement of security initiatives and policies for the Company’s business units (the “Security Program”). The CISO reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer, and together with the Global Security team, possesses significant experience in various roles involving managing information security, developing cybersecurity strategy, and implementing effective information and cybersecurity programs. As part of its Security Program, the Company has developed policies and procedures governing cybersecurity (the “Cybersecurity Program”).

Virtu’s Cybersecurity Program is driven by a threat analysis, laying out standards and requirements pertaining to, but not limited to, penetration testing, endpoint protection, incident management, access controls, mobile security, data classification, third-party access, encryption, system hardening and patching, vulnerability management, passwords, data destruction, physical security, and vendor risk assessment. We also conduct training and awareness exercises to mitigate employee-related cyber risks. In addition to these elements of the Cybersecurity Program aimed at mitigating risk, the Company has developed an Incident Management procedure that addresses escalation and reporting of security incidents in the event that they do occur and has conducted various cross-functional table top exercises to develop and refine a coordinated response plan. The Company also maintains insurance coverage that, subject to its terms and conditions, is intended to address costs associated with certain aspects of cyber-related incidents. These processes are intended to identify and remediate cybersecurity incidents, and also provide the framework for our proactive identification, assessment, and management of potentially material risks from a wide range of cybersecurity threats. Risks identified through these processes are identified to and evaluated by our CISO, who periodically reports to our Board and Risk Committee as described below on any such risks determined by the Global Security team to be potentially material.

Our Cybersecurity Program is periodically evaluated by internal and external experts through penetration and vulnerability testing and other exercises which help us identify and assess material risks, evaluate the effectiveness of our Security Program in mitigating and managing these risks, and improve our security measures and planning, including by comparison to other companies and to industry standards. The results of these assessments are reviewed by our CISO and other members of management and are shared with the Risk Committee of our Board of Directors (the “Risk Committee”).

Our Risk Committee assists our Board of Directors (the “Board”) in its oversight of cybersecurity risk in accordance with its charter. The Risk Committee receives at least annually, and the Board receives periodically reports from our CISO and other members of senior management, which include updates on the Company’s cyber risks and threats, its Cybersecurity Program, the status of projects to augment our information security systems, assessments of the Security Program, and the emerging threat landscape.

We face a number of cybersecurity risks in connection with our business. Although we maintain and enforce our Cybersecurity Program, we may not detect or prevent all attempts to compromise our systems or otherwise cause breaches or disruptions, which could result in material impacts to our operations or financial condition. As of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not aware of any material impact to our results of operations or financial conditions resulting from cyberattacks or other information security breaches. For more information about the cybersecurity risks we face, see the risk factor entitled “We could be the target of a significant cyber-attack, threat or incident that impairs internal systems, results in adverse consequences to information our system process, store or transmit or causes reputation or monetary damages as a consequence” in Item 1A- Risk Factors.

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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our headquarters are located in leased office space at 1633 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. We also lease space for our offices in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Asia-Pacific, and services in all segments are performed in each of these locations. We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The information required by this item is set forth in the “Legal Proceedings” section in Note 14 “Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees” to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data”, which is incorporated by reference herein.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

None.

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PART II

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ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

The Class A Common Stock trade on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol “VIRT.” There is no established public trading market for Class B Common Stock, Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock.

Holders

Based on information made available to us by the transfer agent, as of February 8, 2024, there are thirty-five stockholders of record of our Class A Common Stock, one of which was Cede & Co., a nominee for The Depository Trust Company, zero stockholders of record of our Class B Common Stock, six stockholders of record of our Class C Common Stock and one stockholder of record of our Class D Common Stock. All of our Class A Common Stock held by brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions as nominees for beneficial owners is considered to be held of record by Cede & Co., who is considered to be one stockholder of record. A substantially greater number of holders of our Class A Common Stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares of Class A Common Stock are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions. Because such shares of Class A Common Stock are held on behalf of stockholders, and not by the stockholders directly, and because a stockholder can have multiple positions with different brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions, we are unable to determine the total number of stockholders we have.

Dividend and Capital Return Policy

Our Board of Directors has adopted a policy of returning excess cash to our stockholders. The Board of Directors declared and we paid quarterly cash dividends of $0.24 during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021. The Company intends to continue paying regular quarterly dividends to holders of our Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock and to holders of RSUs and RSAs (each as defined below); however, the payment of dividends will be subject to general economic and business conditions, including the Company’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, including restrictions contained in our Credit Agreement, regulatory restrictions, business prospects and other factors that the Company’s Board of Directors considers relevant. The terms of the Credit Agreement contain a number of covenants, including a restriction on our and our restricted subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends on, or make distributions in respect of, our equity interests. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Long-Term Borrowings.”

Stock Performance

The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing. Our stock price performance shown in the graph below is not indicative of future stock price performance.

The stock performance graph below compares the performance of an investment in our Class A Common Stock, from December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023, with the S&P 500 Index and the NYSE ARCA Securities Broker/Dealer Index. The graph assumes $100 was invested in our Class A Common Stock, the S&P 500 Index and the NYSE Arca Securities
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Broker/Dealer Index. It assumes that dividends were reinvested on the date of payment without payment of any commissions or consideration of income taxes.


3704
Index12/31/20186/28/201912/31/20196/30/202012/31/20206/30/202112/31/20216/30/202212/30/202206/30/202312/29/2023
Virtu Financial Inc.100.00 86.27 65.14 98.41 107.10 115.46 122.67 97.50 86.84 70.84 86.20 
S&P 500100.00 117.35 128.88 123.67 149.83 171.43 190.13 151.00 153.16 177.53 190.27 
NYSE Arca Securities Broker/Dealer100.00 112.57 122.35 114.54 159.09 197.66 205.13 160.65 189.23 198.74 234.81 

Stock and Common Units Repurchases

Pursuant to the exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) entered into on April 15, 2015 by and among the Company, Virtu Financial and holders of Virtu Financial Units, Virtu Financial Units (along with the corresponding shares of our Class C Common Stock or Class D Common Stock, as applicable) may be exchanged at any time for shares of our Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock, as applicable, on a one-for-one basis, subject to customary conversion rate adjustments for stock splits, stock dividends and reclassifications.

On November 6, 2020, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a new share repurchase program of up to $100.0 million in Class A common stock and Virtu Financial Units by December 31, 2021. On February 11, 2021, the Company's Board of Directors authorized the expansion of the program to $170 million. On May 4, 2021 the Company's Board of directors authorized the expansion of the program, increasing the total authorized to $470 million and extending the duration of the program through May 4, 2022. Additionally, on November 3, 2021 the Company's Board of Directors authorized the expansion of the program by an additional $750 million to $1,220 million total and extending the duration of the program through November 3, 2023, which was subsequently extended through December 31, 2024. The Company may repurchase shares from time to time in open market transactions, privately negotiated transactions or by other means. Repurchases may also be made
46


under Rule 10b5-1 plans. The timing and amount of repurchase transactions will be determined by the Company's management based on its evaluation of market conditions, share price, legal requirements and other factors. The program may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time without prior notice. There are no assurances that any further repurchases will actually occur. From the inception of the program through December 31, 2023, the Company has repurchased approximately 43.6 million shares of Class A Common Stock and Virtu Financial Units for approximately $1,109.6 million. The Company has approximately $110.4 million of remaining capacity for future purchases of shares of Class A Common Stock and Virtu Financial Units under the program.
The following table contains information about the Company’s purchases of its Class A Common Stock and Class C Common Stock during the three months ended December 31, 2023:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased (1)Average Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsApproximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2023 - October 31, 2023
Class A Common Stock / Virtu Financial Units repurchases1,039,179 $18.01 1,008,207 $136,271,227 
November 1, 2023 - November 30, 2023
Class A Common Stock / Virtu Financial Units repurchases661,261 17.7 658,939 124,606,029 
December 1, 2023 - December 31, 2023
Class A Common Stock / Virtu Financial Units repurchases731,810 19.44 730,673 110,402,519 
Total Common Stock / Virtu Financial Unit repurchases2,432,250 $18.36 2,397,819 $110,402,519 
(1) Includes the repurchase of 34,431 shares from employees in order to satisfy statutory tax withholding requirements upon the net settlement of equity awards for the three months ended December 31, 2023
During the year ended December 31, 2023, pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, certain current and former employees elected to exchange 186,394 units in Virtu Financial held directly or on their behalf by Virtu Employee Holdco LLC (“Employee Holdco”) on a one-for-one basis for shares of Class A Common Stock. The shares of our Class A Common Stock were issued in reliance on the registration exemption contained in Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, on the basis that the transaction did not involve a public offering. No underwriters were involved in the transaction.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table provides information about shares of common stock available for future awards under all of the Company’s equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2023:
Plan CategoryNumber of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options, warrants and rightsWeighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rightsNumber of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in first column)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holdersAmended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan1,511,776 $19.00 5,070,530 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holdersNone— — — 
Total1,511,776 $19.00 5,070,530 

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ITEM 6. RESERVED
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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The following management’s discussion and analysis covers the years ended December 31, 2023, and 2022 should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes for the year ended December 31, 2023, which are included in Item 8, of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. This management's discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed below. Unless otherwise stated, all amounts are presented in thousands of dollars.
 
For discussion around our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 and for a comparison of our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 and year ended December 31, 2021, see Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 17, 2023.

Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they are subject to numerous uncertainties and factors relating to our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Forward-looking statements include information concerning our possible or assumed future results of operations, including descriptions of our business strategy. These forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, including the terms “may,” “will,” “should,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project” or, in each case, their negative, or other variations or comparable terminology and expressions. These statements are based on assumptions that we have made in light of our experience in the industry as well as our perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments and other factors we believe are appropriate under the circumstances. As you read and consider this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should understand that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance or results and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate, may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Although we believe that the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on reasonable assumptions, you should be aware that many factors, including those described under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, could affect our actual financial results or results of operations and cash flows, and could cause actual results to differ materially from those in such forward-looking statements, including but not limited to:
volatility in levels of overall trading activity;
dependence upon trading counterparties, clients and clearing houses performing their obligations to us;
failures of our customized trading platform;
risks inherent to the electronic market making business and trading generally;
recent SEC proposals focused on equity markets which may, if adopted, materially change U.S. equity market structure, including by reducing overall trading volumes, reducing off-exchange trading and market making opportunities, requiring additional tools, platforms and services to register as an ATS or exchange, and generally increasing the implicit and explicit cost as well as the complexity of the U.S. equities eco-system for all participants;
additionally, enhanced regulatory, congressional, and media scrutiny, including attention to electronic trading, wholesale market making and off-exchange trading, payment for order flow, and other market structure topics may result in additional potential changes in regulation or law which could have an adverse effect on our business as well as adversely impact the public's perception of us or of companies in our industry;
increased competition in market making activities and execution services;
dependence on continued access to sources of liquidity;
risks associated with self-clearing and other operational elements of our business, including but limited to risks related to funding and liquidity;
obligations to comply with applicable regulatory capital requirements;
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litigation or other legal and regulatory-based liabilities;
changes in laws, rules or regulations, including proposed legislation that would impose taxes on certain financial transactions in the European Union, the U.S. (and certain states therein) and other jurisdictions and other potential changes which could increase our corporate or other tax obligations in one or more jurisdictions;
obligations to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our operations in the U.S. and abroad;
need to maintain and continue developing proprietary technologies;
capacity constraints, system failures, and delays;
dependence on third-party infrastructure or systems;
use of open source software;
failure to protect or enforce our intellectual property rights in our proprietary technology;
failure to protect confidential and proprietary information;
failure to protect our systems from internal or external cyber threats that could result in damage to our computer systems, business interruption, loss of data, monetary payment demands or other consequences;
risks associated with international operations and expansion, including failed acquisitions or dispositions;
the effects of and changes in economic conditions (such as volatility in the financial markets, increased inflation, monetary conditions and foreign currency and continued or exacerbated exchange rate fluctuations, foreign currency controls and/or government mandated pricing controls, as well as in trade, monetary, fiscal and tax policies in international markets), political conditions (such as military actions and terrorist activities), and other global events such as fires, geopolitical conflicts, natural disasters, pandemics or extreme weather;
risks associated with potential growth and associated corporate actions;
risks associated with new and emerging asset classes and eco-systems in which we may participate, including digital assets, including risks related to volatility in the underlying assets, regulatory uncertainty, evolving industry practices and standards around custody, clearing and settlement, and other risks inherent in a new and evolving asset class;
inability to access, or delay in accessing, the capital markets to sell shares or raise additional capital;
loss of key executives and failure to recruit and retain qualified personnel; and
risks associated with losing access to a significant exchange or other trading venue.

Our forward-looking statements made herein are made only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We expressly disclaim any intent, obligation or undertaking to update or revise any forward-looking statements made herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statements are based. All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” “Virtu” and the “Company” refer to Virtu Financial, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries and the term “Virtu Financial” refers to Virtu Financial LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a consolidated subsidiary of ours.

Basis of Preparation

Our Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 reflect our operations and those of our consolidated subsidiaries.
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Overview

We are a leading financial services firm that leverages cutting edge technology to deliver liquidity to the global markets and innovative, transparent trading solutions to our clients. Leveraging our global market structure expertise and scaled, multi-asset technology infrastructure, we provide our clients with a robust product suite including offerings in execution, liquidity sourcing, analytics and broker-neutral, multi-dealer platforms in workflow technology. Our product offerings allow our clients to trade on hundreds of venues across over 50 countries and in multiple asset classes, including global equities, ETFs, options, foreign exchange, futures, fixed income, cryptocurrencies and other commodities. Our integrated, multi-asset analytics platform provides a range of pre- and post-trade services, data products and compliance tools that our clients rely upon to invest, trade and manage risk across global markets. We believe that our broad diversification, in combination with our proprietary technology platform and low-cost structure gives us the scale necessary to grow our business around the globe as we service clients and facilitate risk transfer between global capital markets participants by providing liquidity, while at the same time earning attractive margins and returns.

Technology and operational efficiency are at the core of our business, and our focus on technology is a key element of our success. We have developed a proprietary, multi-asset, multi-currency technology platform that is highly reliable, scalable and modular, and we integrate directly with exchanges, liquidity centers, and our clients. Our market data, order routing, transaction processing, risk management and market surveillance technology modules manage our market making and execution services activities in an efficient manner and enable us to scale our activities globally across additional securities and other financial instruments and asset classes without significant incremental costs or third-party licensing or processing fees.

We believe that technology-enabled market makers and execution services providers like Virtu serve an important role in maintaining and enhancing the overall health and efficiency of the global capital markets by ensuring that market participants have an efficient means to invest, transfer risk and analyze the quality of executions. We believe that market participants benefit from the increased liquidity, lower overall trading costs and execution transparency that Virtu provides.

Our execution services and client solutions products are designed to be transparent, because we believe transparency makes markets more efficient and helps investors make better, more informed decisions. We use the latest technology to create and deliver liquidity to global markets and innovative trading solutions and analytics tools to our clients. We interact directly with hundreds of retail brokers, Registered Investment Advisors, private client networks, sell-side brokers, and buy-side institutions.

We have two operating segments: Market Making and Execution Services, and one non-operating segment: Corporate. Our management allocates resources, assesses performance and manages our business according to these segments.

Market Making

We leverage cutting edge technology to provide competitive and deep liquidity that helps to create more efficient markets around the world. As a market maker and liquidity provider, we stand ready, at any time, to buy or sell a broad range of securities and other financial instruments, and we generate profits by buying and selling large volumes of securities and other financial instruments and earning small bid/ask spreads. Our market structure expertise, broad diversification, and scalable execution technology enable us to provide competitive bids and offers in over 25,000 securities and other financial instruments, on over 235 venues, in 36 countries worldwide. We use the latest technology to create and deliver liquidity to the global markets and automate our market making, risk controls, and post-trade processes. As a market maker, we interact directly with hundreds of retail brokers, Registered Investment Advisors, private client networks, sell-side brokers, and buy-side institutions.

We believe the overall level of volumes and realized volatility as well as the attractiveness of the order flow we interact with and the level of retail participation in the various markets we serve have the greatest impact on the financial performance of our market making businesses. Increases in market volatility can cause bid/ask spreads to widen as market participants are more willing to pay market makers like us to transact immediately and as a result, market makers' capture rate per notional amount transacted may increase.

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Execution Services

We offer client execution services and trading venues that provide transparent trading in global equities, ETFs, fixed income, currencies, and commodities to institutions, banks and broker-dealers. We generally earn commissions when transacting as an agent for our clients. Client-based, execution-only trading within this segment is done through a variety of access points including: (a) algorithmic trading and order routing; (b) institutional sales traders who offer portfolio trading and single stock sales trading which provides execution expertise for program, block and riskless principal trades in global equities and ETFs; and (c) matching of client conditional orders in POSIT Alert and in our ATSs, including Virtu MatchIt and POSIT. We also earn revenues (a) by providing our proprietary technology and infrastructure to select third parties for a service fee, (b) through workflow technology and our integrated, broker-neutral trading tools delivered across the globe, including order and execution management systems and order management software applications and network connectivity and (c) through trading analytics, including (1) tools enabling portfolio managers and traders to improve pre-trade, real-time and post-trade execution performance, (2) portfolio construction and optimization decisions and (3) securities valuation. The segment also includes the results of our capital markets business, in which we act as an agent for issuers in connection with at-the-market offerings and buyback programs.

Corporate

Our Corporate segment contains investments principally in strategic financial services-oriented opportunities and maintains corporate overhead expenses and all other income and expenses that are not attributable to our other segments.

Credit Agreement

On March 1, 2019, the “ITG Closing Date”, we announced the completed acquisition of Investment Technology Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (“ITG”) in an all-cash transaction (the “ITG Acquisition”). In connection with the ITG Acquisition, Virtu Financial, VFH Parent LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a subsidiary of Virtu Financial (“VFH”), and Impala Borrower LLC (the “Acquisition Borrower”), a subsidiary of the Company, entered into a credit agreement, with the lenders party thereto, Jefferies Finance LLC, as administrative agent and Jefferies Finance LLC and RBC Capital Markets, as joint lead arrangers and joint bookrunners (the “Acquisition Credit Agreement”). The Acquisition Credit Agreement provided (i) a senior secured first lien term loan (together with the Acquisition Incremental Term Loans, as defined below; the “Acquisition First Lien Term Loan Facility”) in an aggregate principal amount of $1,500.0 million, drawn in its entirety on the ITG Closing Date, of which approximately $404.5 million was borrowed by VFH to repay all amounts outstanding under a previous term loan facility and the remaining approximately $1,095.0 million borrowed by the Acquisition Borrower to finance the consideration and fees and expenses paid in connection with the ITG Acquisition, and (ii) a $50.0 million senior secured first lien revolving facility to VFH (the “Acquisition First Lien Revolving Facility”), with a $5.0 million letter of credit subfacility and a $5.0 million swingline subfacility. After the ITG Closing Date, VFH assumed the obligations of the Acquisition Borrower in respect of the acquisition term loans. On October 9, 2019, VFH entered into an amendment (“Amendment No. 1”), which amended the Acquisition Credit Agreement dated as of March 1, 2019, to, among other things, provide for $525.0 million in aggregate principal amount of incremental term loans (the “Acquisition Incremental Term Loans”), and amend the related collateral agreement. On March 2, 2020, VFH entered into a second amendment (“Amendment No. 2”), which further amended the Acquisition Credit Agreement to, among other things, reduce the interest rate spread over adjusted London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) or the alternate base rate by 0.50% per annum and eliminated any step-down in the spread based on VFH's first lien leverage ratio.

On January 13, 2022 (the “Credit Agreement Closing Date”), VFH and Virtu Financial entered into a credit agreement, with the lenders party thereto, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. as administrative agent and JPMorgan Chase bank, N.A., Goldman Sachs Bank USA, RBC Capital Markets, Barclays Bank plc, Jefferies Finance LLC, BMO Capital Markets Corp., and CIBC World Markets Corp., as joint lead arrangers and bookrunners (the “Credit Agreement”). The Credit Agreement provides (i) a senior secured first lien term loan in an aggregate principal amount of $1,800.0 million, drawn in its entirety on the Credit Agreement Closing Date, the proceeds of which were used by VFH to repay all amounts outstanding under the Acquisition Credit Agreement, to pay fees and expenses in connection therewith, to fund share repurchases under the Company’s repurchase program and for general corporate purposes, and (ii) a $250.0 million senior secured first lien revolving facility to VFH, with a $20.0 million letter of credit subfacility and a $20.0 million swingline subfacility.

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Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan

The Company’s Board of Directors and stockholders adopted the 2015 Management Incentive Plan, which became effective upon consummation of the Company's IPO and was subsequently amended and restated following receipt of approval from the Company’s stockholders on June 30, 2017 (the “Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan”). The Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan provides for the grant of stock options, restricted stock units, and other awards based on an aggregate of 16,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Class A Common Stock”), subject to additional sublimits, including limits on the total option grant to any one participant in a single year and the total performance award to any one participant in a single year. On April 23, 2020, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted an amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan in order to increase the number of shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock reserved for issuance, and in respect of which awards may be granted under the Amended and Restated 2015 Plan from 16,000,000 to an aggregate of 21,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock. On April 22, 2022, the Company’s Board of Directors adopted another amendment to the Company’s Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan to increase the number of shares to an aggregate of 26,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock and the amendment was approved by the Company’s shareholders at the Company’s annual meeting of shareholders on June 2, 2022.

In connection with the IPO, non-qualified stock options to purchase 9,228,000 shares were granted at the IPO per share price, each of which vested in equal annual installments over a period of four years from the grant date and expire not later than 10 years from the grant date. Subsequent to the IPO and through December 31, 2023, options to purchase 1,643,750 shares in the aggregate were forfeited and 6,072,474 options were exercised. The fair value of the stock option grants was determined through the application of the Black-Scholes-Merton model and was recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

Amended and Restated Investment Technology Group, Inc. 2007 Omnibus Equity Compensation Plan

On the ITG Closing Date, the Company assumed the Amended and Restated ITG 2007 Omnibus Equity Compensation Plan, dated as of June 8, 2017 (the “Amended and Restated ITG 2007 Equity Plan”) and certain stock option awards, restricted stock unit awards, deferred stock unit awards and performance stock unit awards granted under the Amended and Restated ITG 2007 Equity Plan (the “Assumed Awards”). The Assumed Awards are subject to the same terms and conditions that were applicable to them under the Amended and Restated ITG 2007 Equity Plan, except that (i) the Assumed Awards relate to shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock, (ii) the number of shares of Class A Common Stock subject to the Assumed Awards was the result of an adjustment based upon an Exchange Ratio (as defined in the Agreement and Plan of Merger by and between the Company, Impala Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, and ITG, dated as of November 6, 2018, the “ITG Merger Agreement”) and (iii) the performance share unit awards were converted into service-based vesting restricted stock unit awards that were no longer subject to any performance based vesting conditions.

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Components of Our Results of Operations

The following table shows our i) Total revenue, ii) Total operating expenses, and iii) Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest by segment for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:

(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,
Market Making202320222021
Total revenue$1,843,523 $1,812,839 $2,203,046 
Total operating expenses1,527,921 1,332,280 1,277,078 
Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest315,602 480,559 925,968 
Execution Services
Total revenue446,542 514,241 600,215 
Total operating expenses436,102 472,899 530,196 
Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest10,440 41,342 70,019 
Corporate
Total revenue3,308 37,732 8,224 
Total operating expenses4,219 2,835 7,307 
Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest(911)34,897 917 
Consolidated
Total revenue2,293,373 2,364,812 2,811,485 
Total operating expenses1,968,242 1,808,014 1,814,581 
Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest$325,131 $556,798 $996,904 

The following table shows our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:


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Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands)202320222021
Revenues:
Trading income, net$1,301,344 $1,628,898 $2,105,194 
Interest and dividends income462,566 159,120 75,384 
Commissions, net and technology services455,598 529,845 614,489 
Other, net73,865 46,949 16,418 
Total revenue2,293,373 2,364,812 2,811,485 
Operating Expenses:
Brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow, net508,358 619,168 745,434 
Communication and data processing230,760 219,505 211,988 
Employee compensation and payroll taxes394,039 390,947 376,282 
Interest and dividends expense500,467 231,060 139,704 
Operations and administrative98,972 86,069 88,149 
Depreciation and amortization63,306 66,377 67,816 
Amortization of purchased intangibles and acquired capitalized software63,960 64,837 69,668 
Termination of office leases455 6,982 28,138 
Debt issue cost related to debt refinancing, prepayment and commitment fees8,317 29,910 6,590 
Transaction advisory fees and expenses314 1,124 843 
Financing interest expense on long-term borrowings99,294 92,035 79,969 
Total operating expenses1,968,242 1,808,014 1,814,581 
Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest325,131 556,798 996,904 
Provision for income taxes61,210 88,466 169,670 
Net income$263,921 $468,332 $827,234 
Selected Operating Margins
GAAP Net income Margin (1)11.5 %19.8 %29.4 %
(1)Calculated by dividing Net income by Total revenue.

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Net income available to stockholders and basic and diluted earnings per share are presented below:
 Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands, except for share or per share data)202320222021
Net income$263,921 $468,332 $827,234 
Noncontrolling interest(121,885)(203,306)(350,356)
Net income available for common stockholders$142,036 $265,026 $476,878 
Earnings per share
Basic$1.42 $2.45 $3.95 
Diluted$1.42 $2.44 $3.91 
Weighted average common shares outstanding
Basic94,076,165 103,997,767 117,339,539 
Diluted94,076,165 104,422,443 118,423,928 
Total Revenues

Revenues are generated through market marking activities, commissions and fees on execution services activities, which include recurring subscriptions on workflow technology and analytic products. The majority of our revenues are generated through market making activities, which are recorded as Trading income, net and Interest and dividends income. Commissions and fees are derived from commissions charged for trade executions in client execution services. We earn commissions and commission equivalents, as well as, in certain cases, contingent fees based on client revenues, which represent variable consideration. The services offered under these contracts have the same pattern of transfer; accordingly, they are being measured and recognized as a single performance obligation. The performance obligation is satisfied over time, and accordingly, revenue is recognized as time passes. Variable consideration has not been included in the transaction price as the amount of consideration is contingent on factors outside our control.

Recurring revenues are primarily derived from workflow technology connectivity fees generated for matching client orders, and analytics services to select third parties. Revenues from connectivity fees are recognized and billed to clients on a monthly basis. Revenues from commissions attributable to analytic products under bundled arrangements are recognized over the course of the year as the performance obligations for those analytics products are satisfied.

Trading income, net. Trading income, net represents revenue earned from bid/ask spreads. Trading income is generated in the normal course of our market making activities and is typically proportional to the level of trading activity, or volumes, and bid/ask spreads in the asset classes we serve. Our trading income is highly diversified by asset class and geography and comprises small amounts earned on millions of trades on various exchanges. Our trading income, net, results from gains and losses associated with trading strategies, which are designed to capture small bid/ask spreads, while hedging risks. Trading income, net, accounted for 57% and 69% of our total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Interest and dividends income. Our market making activities require us to hold securities on a regular basis, and we generate revenues in the form of interest and dividends income from these securities. Interest is also earned on securities borrowed from other market participants pursuant to collateralized financing arrangements and on cash held by brokers. Dividends income arises from holding market making positions over dates on which dividends are paid to shareholders of record.

Commissions, net and technology services. We earn revenues on transactions for which we charge explicit commissions or commission equivalents, which include the majority of our institutional client orders. Commissions and fees are primarily affected by changes in our equities, fixed income and futures transaction volumes with institutional clients, which vary based on client relationships; changes in commission rates; client experience on the various platforms; level of volume-based fees from providing liquidity to other trading venues; and the level of our soft dollar and commission recapture activity. Client commission fees are charged for client trades executed by us on behalf of third-party broker-dealers and other financial institutions. Revenue is recognized on a trade date basis, which is the point at which the performance obligation to the customer is satisfied, based on the trade being executed. In addition, we offer workflow technology and analytics services to select third
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parties. Revenues are derived from fees generated by matching sell-side and buy-side clients orders, and from analytic products delivered to the clients.

Other, net. We have interests in multiple strategic investments and telecommunications joint ventures (“JVs”). We record our pro-rata share of each JV’s earnings or losses within Other, net, while fees related to the use of communication services provided by the JVs are recorded within Communications and data processing. 

We have a noncontrolling investment (the “JNX Investment”) in Japannext Co., Ltd. (“JNX”), a proprietary trading system based in Tokyo. In connection with the investment, we issued bonds to certain affiliates of JNX and used the proceeds to partially finance the transaction. Revenues or losses are recognized due to the changes in fair value of the investment or fluctuations in Japanese Yen conversion rates within Other, net.

Other, net can also include gains on sales of strategic investments and businesses, as well as revenues from service agreements related to the sale of businesses.

Operating Expenses

Brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow, net. Brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow are our most significant expenses, which include the direct expenses of executing and clearing transactions that we consummate in the course of our market making activities. Brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow primarily consist of fees charged by third parties for executing, processing and settling trades. These fees generally increase and decrease in direct correlation with the level of our trading activity. Execution fees are paid primarily to exchanges and venues where we trade. Clearance fees are paid to clearing houses and clearing agents. Payments for order flow represent payments to broker-dealer clients, in the normal course of business, for directing their order flow in U.S. equities to the Company. Rebates based on volume discounts, credits or payments received from exchanges or other marketplaces are netted against brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow.

Communication and data processing. Communication and data processing represent primarily fixed expenses for data center co-location, network lines and connectivity for our trading centers and co-location facilities. Communications expense consists primarily of the cost of voice and data telecommunication lines supporting our business, including connectivity to data centers, exchanges, markets and liquidity pools around the world, and data processing expense consists primarily of market data subscription fees that we pay to third parties to receive price quotes and related information.

Employee compensation and payroll taxes. Employee compensation and payroll taxes include employee salaries, cash and non-cash incentive compensation, employee benefits, payroll taxes, severance and other employee related costs. Employee compensation and payroll taxes also includes non-cash compensation expenses with respect to restricted stock units and restricted stock awards pursuant to the Amended and Restated 2015 Management Incentive Plan and Class A Common Stock underlying certain awards assumed pursuant to the Amended and Restated ITG 2007 Equity Plan.

Interest and dividends expense. We incur interest expense from loaning certain equity securities in the general course of our market making activities pursuant to collateralized lending transactions. Typically, dividends expense is incurred when a dividend is paid on securities sold short.

Operations and administrative. Operations and administrative expense represents occupancy, recruiting, travel and related expense, professional fees and other expenses.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization expense results from the depreciation of fixed assets and leased equipment, such as computing and communications hardware, as well as amortization of leasehold improvements and capitalized in-house software development. We depreciate our computer hardware and related software, office hardware and furniture and fixtures on a straight-line basis over a period of 3 to 7 years based on the estimated useful life of the underlying asset, and we amortize our capitalized software development costs on a straight-line basis over a period of 1.5 to 3 years, which represents the estimated useful lives of the underlying software. We amortize leasehold improvements on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the life of the improvement or the term of the lease.

Amortization of purchased intangibles and acquired capitalized software. Amortization of purchased intangibles and acquired capitalized software represents the amortization of finite lived intangible assets acquired in connection with the Acquisition of KCG and the ITG Acquisition. These assets are amortized over their useful lives, ranging from 1 to 15 years, except for certain assets which were categorized as having indefinite useful lives.

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Termination of office leases. Termination of office leases represents the write-off expense related to certain office space we ceased use of as part of the effort to integrate and consolidate office space. The aggregate write-off amount includes the impairment of operating lease right-of-use assets, leasehold improvements and fixed assets, and dilapidation charges.

Debt issue cost related to debt refinancing, prepayment and commitment fees. As a result of the refinancing or early termination of our long-term borrowings, we accelerate the capitalized debt issue cost and the discount on the term loan that would otherwise be amortized or accreted over the life of the term loan. Premium paid in connection with retiring outstanding bonds, and commitment fees paid for lines of credit are also included in this category.

Transaction advisory fees and expenses. Transaction advisory fees and expenses primarily reflect professional fees incurred by us in connection with one or more acquisitions or dispositions.

Financing interest expense on long-term borrowings. Financing interest expense reflects interest accrued on outstanding indebtedness under our long-term borrowing arrangements.

Provision for income taxes

We are subject to U.S. federal, state and local income tax at the rate applicable to corporations less the rate attributable to the noncontrolling interest in Virtu Financial. Our non-U.S. operations are also subject to foreign income tax at the applicable corporate rates.

Our effective tax rate is subject to significant variation due to several factors, including variability in our pre-tax and taxable income and loss and the jurisdictions to which they relate, changes in how we do business, acquisitions and investments, audit-related developments, tax law developments (including changes in statutes, regulations, case law, and administrative practices), and relative changes of expenses or losses for which tax benefits are not recognized. Additionally, our effective tax rate can be more or less volatile based on the amount of pre-tax income or loss. For example, the impact of discrete items and non-deductible expenses on our effective tax rate is greater when our pre-tax income is lower. Our effective tax rate may also be impacted by changes in the portion of income that is attributable to the noncontrolling interest.

We regularly assess whether it is more likely than not that we will realize our deferred tax assets in each taxing jurisdiction in which we operate. In performing this assessment with respect to each jurisdiction, we review all available evidence, including actual and expected future earnings, capital gains, and investment in such jurisdiction, the carry-forward periods available to us for tax reporting purposes, and other relevant factors. See Note 13 “Income Taxes” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.

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Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Other Items

To supplement our Consolidated Financial Statements presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”), we use the following non-U.S. GAAP (“Non-GAAP”) financial measures of financial performance:

“Adjusted Net Trading Income”, which is the amount of revenue we generate from our market making activities, or Trading income, net, plus Commissions, net and technology services, plus Interest and dividends income, less direct costs associated with those revenues, including Brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow, net, and Interest and dividends expense. We also disclose Adjusted Net Trading Income by segment, including daily averages. Management believes that Adjusted Net Trading Income is useful for comparing general operating performance from period to period. Although we use Adjusted Net Trading Income as a financial measure to assess the performance of our business, the use of Adjusted Net Trading Income is limited because it does not include certain material costs that are necessary to operate our business. Our presentation of Adjusted Net Trading Income should not be construed as an indication that our future results will be unaffected by revenues or expenses that are not directly associated with our core business activities.
“EBITDA”, which measures our operating performance by adjusting Net Income to exclude Financing interest expense on long-term borrowings, Debt issue cost related to debt refinancing, prepayment, and commitment fees, Depreciation and amortization, Amortization of purchased intangibles and acquired capitalized software, and Income tax expense, and “Adjusted EBITDA”, which measures our operating performance by further adjusting EBITDA to exclude severance, transaction advisory fees and expenses, termination of office leases, charges related to share-based compensation and other expenses, which includes reserves for legal matters, and Other, net, which includes gains and losses from strategic investments, the sales of businesses, and other income.
“Normalized Adjusted Net Income”, “Normalized Adjusted Net Income before income taxes”, “Normalized provision for income taxes”, and “Normalized Adjusted EPS”, which we calculate by adjusting Net Income to exclude certain items, and other non-cash items, assuming that all vested and unvested Virtu Financial Units have been exchanged for Class A Common Stock, and applying an effective tax rate, which was approximately 24%.
Operating Margins, which are calculated by dividing net income, EBITDA, and Adjusted EBITDA by Adjusted Net Trading Income.

Adjusted Net Trading Income, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, Normalized Adjusted Net Income, Normalized Adjusted Net Income before income taxes, Normalized provision for income taxes, Normalized Adjusted EPS, and Operating Margins (collectively, the “Company's Non-GAAP Measures”) are non-GAAP financial measures used by management in evaluating operating performance and in making strategic decisions. In addition, the Company's Non-GAAP Measures or similar non-GAAP financial measures are used by research analysts, investment bankers and lenders to assess our operating performance. Management believes that the presentation of the Company's Non-GAAP Measures provides useful information to investors regarding our results of operations and cash flows because they assist both investors and management in analyzing and benchmarking the performance and value of our business. The Company's Non-GAAP Measures provide indicators of general economic performance that are not affected by fluctuations in certain costs or other items. Accordingly, management believes that these measurements are useful for comparing general operating performance from period to period. Furthermore, our Credit Agreement contains covenants and other tests based on metrics similar to Adjusted EBITDA. Other companies may define Adjusted Net Trading Income, Adjusted EBITDA, Normalized Adjusted Net Income, Normalized Adjusted Net Income before income taxes, Normalized provision for income taxes, Normalized Adjusted EPS, and Operating Margins differently, and as a result the Company's Non-GAAP Measures may not be directly comparable to those of other companies. Although we use the Company's Non-GAAP Measures as financial measures to assess the performance of our business, such use is limited because they do not include certain material costs necessary to operate our business.

The Company's Non-GAAP Measures should be considered in addition to, and not as a substitute for, Net Income in accordance with U.S. GAAP as a measure of performance. Our presentation of the Company's Non-GAAP Measures should not be construed as an indication that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or nonrecurring items. The Company's Non-GAAP Measures have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider them in isolation or as substitutes for analysis of our results as reported under U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:

they do not reflect every cash expenditure, future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
our EBITDA-based measures do not reflect the significant interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payment on our debt;
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although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced or require improvements in the future, and our EBITDA-based measures do not reflect any cash requirement for such replacements or improvements;
they are not adjusted for all non-cash income or expense items that are reflected in our consolidated statements of cash flows;
they do not reflect the impact of earnings or charges resulting from matters we consider not to be indicative of our ongoing operations; and
they do not reflect limitations on our costs related to transferring earnings from our subsidiaries to us.

Because of these limitations, the Company's Non-GAAP Measures are not intended as alternatives to Net Income as indicators of our operating performance and should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business or as measures of cash that will be available to us to meet our obligations. We compensate for these limitations by using the Company's Non-GAAP Measures along with other comparative tools, together with U.S. GAAP measurements, to assist in the evaluation of operating performance. These U.S. GAAP measurements include operating Net Income, cash flows from operations and cash flow data. See below a reconciliation of each of the Company's Non-GAAP Measures to the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure.

The following table reconciles the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income to arrive at Adjusted Net Trading Income, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, and Operating Margins for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021.

Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands)202320222021
Reconciliation of Trading income, net to Adjusted Net Trading Income
Trading income, net$1,301,344 $1,628,898 $2,105,194 
Interest and dividends income462,566 159,120 75,384 
Commissions, net and technology services455,598 529,845 614,489 
Brokerage, exchange, clearance fees and payments for order flow, net(508,358)(619,168)(745,434)
Interest and dividends expense(500,467)(231,060)(139,704)
Adjusted Net Trading Income$1,210,683